Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is a tree which occurs in a broad range of habitats in Brazil. In the State of Rio de Janeiro, it occurs. CONTEXT: Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is a tree widespread in many Brazilian states. This plant naturally occurs. Find technical and marketing information for lesser-used tropical timber species, LUS. Learn more on our Tapia (Alchornea triplinervia) page.
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Fungal succession on leaves of Alchornea triplinervia Spreng. Leaves of Alchornea triplinervia Spreng. Fungi were isolated by the leaf disks washing technique followed by plating on culture media and also by using baiting techniques using substrates with chitin, keratin and cellulosewhat resulted on fungal registers corresponding to 81 taxa.
The most common species found during this study of the fungal succession were Trichoderma viride Pers. Gray and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht emend. Cylindrocladium scoparium Morgan, Triscelophorus monosporus Ingold and Polychytrium aggregatum Ajello. Although the monthly obtained mycota had been composed by species of different taxonomic groups, the fungal succession was defined by the initial presence of typical terrestrial leaf inhabiting fungi mostly Deuteromycotinafollowed by species of Mastigomycotina and Zygomycotina.
Combining culture methods and baiting techniques, it was possible to verify the presence of terrestrial fungi on the decomposition of submerged leaves and the importance of zoosporic fungi in the fungal succession. This is the first paper about the fungal succession on the decomposition of leaves submerged in a lotic ecosystem in Brazil. Folhas de Alchornea triplinervia Spreng. Gray e Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht emend. Key words – Fungal succession, leaf decomposition, Atlantic Rainforest, aquatic system.
The usually diversified and competitive mycota present in the leaf tissues, before submergence, may include “autochthonous” fungi, that resist to drastic environmental changes and participate on further decomposition processes, until some of the native aquatic fungi are able to colonize and dominate the substrate Park The sequential replacement of the fungal species may be strongly affected by the nutrient content of the substrates, but also by the competition abilities of each fungus.
According to Garrett the success of the fungi to reach and colonize organic substrates may be mainly determined by their competitive saprophytic ability, expressed by fast mycelial growth, spores production, presence of an efficient enzymatic systems and tolerance to antibiotics.
So, the occurrence of several fungal groups, each with specific competitive saprophytic abilities, during the decomposition of leaves may result in a process known as fungal succession Frankland The first papers about fungal succession on submerged leaves in Brazil were concerned with the decomposition of Ficus microcarpa L. The results revealed the efficiency of the combination of isolation and baiting methods to obtain a representative mycota, and the participation of zoosporic fungi in the fungal succession.
The aim of this paper is to contribute for the knowledge about the diversity of fungi in the succession process during the decomposition of A. A brief summary about the sampling and isolation methods is presented: August of to July of and August of to May of In July of and recently fallen leaves of A. In the laboratory, the leaves were air dried oCdivided in samples of approximately 20 g and placed into nylon net 1 mm diam. Forty litter bags were submerged at each of five collection points along the stream.
The distance among the collection points was around 5 m, being three and two points respectively chosen for each site of the stream.
Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science
Fungi were isolated by the leaf disk washing technique Pugh et al. About twenty washed leaf disks were incubated in Petri dishes containing distilled sterilized water and baits: The fungi were isolated from the dry leaves in July of and in July of to provide knowledge about the composition of the mycota before tfiplinervia in the stream, as a startpoint to follow further changes of the successional fungal communities.
The colonies of Deuteromycotina, Zygomycotina and Ascomycotina that grew around the leaf disks were isolated after seven days of incubation o Cwhile the zoosporic fungi were observed after five days of incubation.
Microscopical slides prepared with cotton blue and sealed with nail alchornwa were also kept for observation. A total of 81 taxa distributed in registers were obtained alchornsa 1representing respectively: Table 1 – Fungal succession on A. Also in the leaves of Quercus robur the species of Deuteromycotina were predominant Schoenlein-Crusius et al. In the plant species mentioned above, the mycota present in the leaves before submergence remained in the substrates during a relatively long period of time, four to six months.
Therefore, the results presented here are showing the adequacy of considering the autochthonous fungi, present in the recent fallen leaves as a startpoint mycota for the fungal succession in the aquatic environment. On table 1 the fungi isolated from the submerged leaves were disposed according to their occurrences, following the fungal succession, since before the submergence of the leaves in the stream.
So, the taxa registered in July of and July of were isolated from the leaves before the submergence.
During the first period of the experiment, the highest number of fungal specimens was registered in January of 38 registers and the lowest in August of 13 registers. During the second period, the highest number was registered in April of 40 registers and the lowest in July of 10 registersbefore the leaves were submerged in the stream. The most common genera were Fusarium 11 registersTrichoderma 6Penicillium 5Cladosporium 4 and Mucor 4.
Among them, the following species presented the highest numbers: Trichoderma viride 23Fusarium oxysporum 23 and Penicillium hirsutum Trichoderma virideFusarium oxysporumPenicillium hirsutumAlternaria alternataMucor hiemalisEpicoccum purpurescens and Aspergillus clavatus were components of the mycota isolated from the leaves prior the submergence until intermediate stages of the decomposition table 1.
The resistance of autochthonous fungi to the environmental changes was often demonstrated for terrestrial Hudson and aquatic habitat Park ; Puppi Considering the high diversity of the terrestrial fungi usually found in submerged substrates, the role of “geofungi” and of the zoosporic fungi that do not produce ergosterol in alchorna decomposition of submerged substrates have to be stressed out in further studies.
Trichoderma viride 23 registersFusarium oxysporum 23Penicillium hirsutum 21Alternaria alternata 10Mucor hiemalis 16Epicoccum purpurascens 10Aspergillus clavatus 13 and Fusarium graminearum 7 were isolated from the recently fallen leaves and were present even after the submergence of the substrate.
From the rtiplinervia month on, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sphaerospermumCylindrocladium scopariumColletotrichum orbiculare, Fusarium solaniPaecilomyces javanicus, Pestalotia clavataand Rhizopus arrhizus were isolated. The occurrence of R. Acremonium strictum, Anguillospora crassa, Lunulospora curvula, Tetrachaetum elegansTripospermum sp. According to Newtonas soon as the leaves are submerged in the water, many triplineevia of aquatic Hyphomycetes are “attracted” to the substrate, taking their place as initial decomposers.
Although the alcornea Hyphomycetes, as well as some zoosporic fungi may be considered initial decomposers, with high capacity to degrade cellulose and lignin compounds Willoughbytheir presence in the leaves of A. After the fourth month, Gliocladium roseumKarlingia rosea, Microsphaeriopsis olivacea, Nectria haematococca and Nigrospora oryzae were isolated from the substrate. Trichoderma koningii and Verticillium lecanii were observed from the fifth month on.
Karlingia rosea and Nowakowskiella elegans have been considered triplibervia fungi, while Polychytrium aggregatum has demonstrated a high affinity with keratin substrates Willoughby The presence of the zoosporic fungi in the decomposing leaves, resulted in an increase of the total number of registers, from 16 in December of to 38 in January ofduring the first period of the experiment table 1. Their participation in the fungal succession seems to have changed significantly the distribution patterns of the decomposing mycota.
In the leaves of A. The failure of many species to grow on culture media and the necessity to use baiting techniques to detect their presence on the substrates, make the study of the activity of zoosporic fungi very difficult, justifying their absence in the studies mentioned above. Aspergillus alutaceusCladosporium herbarum, Gelasinospora cerealis and Rhizophydium elyensis were isolated since the seventh month of decomposition.
From the eighth and ninth months on, Catenophlyctis variabilisFusarium lateritium, Mucor hiemalis f. Chaetomium globosumMucor circinelloides f. The number of fungal species and the total number of registers increased in function of the time of decomposition of the leaves.
However, the fungi present at the beginning of the succession showed higher register numbers than those at the end of the alcbornea table 1.
Once again, the dominance of terrestrial fungi on the submerged substrate may justify these results. It seems possible that after some time the conditions of the leaves allow the establishment of a more diversified mycota. Curvularia brachyspora, Fusarium clamydosporum, F. The fungal succession table 1 may not be well defined by the sequential occurrence of taxonomic groups such as was stated in the studies of Newell and Franklandbut some tendencies may be pointed out from the results. The presence of typical terrestrial fungi belonging to Deuteromycotina, seems to be connected with the initial stages of the decomposition of the leaves, whereas the presence of species of Zygomycotina may be expected at the end of the process.
Zoosporic fungi and aquatic Hyphomycetes showed a tendency to occur in an intermediate phases of the succession. The methods used to isolate the fungi rriplinervia be carefully chosen to allow the obtaintion of a representative mycota. The combination of plating methods and baiting techniques confirmed to be useful to obtain a diversified mycota from leaves submerged in a stream of an Atlantic Rainforest.
Fungi and cellulolytic activity associated with decomposition of Bauhinia purpurea leaf litter in a polluted and unpolluted Hong Kong waterway. Dynamics of the fungal population on leaves in the stream. Fungal colonization of alder and eucalypt leaves in two streams in central Portugal. Aquatic Hyphomycetes on oak leaves: Breakdown and colonization of Yriplinervia leaves in a New Zealand stream. Isolation of cellulose-decomposing fungi from the soil.
Mechanisms in fungal successions. In The fungal community: Soil fungi triplihervia fertility. Importance of stream microfungi in controlling triplinerbia rates of leaf litter. Stable successional patterns of aquatic Hyphomycetes on leaves decaying in a summer cool stream.
Hifomicetes Deuteromycotina acuaticos de Tierra del Fuego. Ecology of fungi on plant remains above the soil. The succession in the mycoflora of red mangrove Rhizophora mangle L. In Recent Advances in aquatic Mycology E. A mycological study triplinerrvia decay in the leaves of deciduous trees on the bed of a river. PhD thesis, University of Salford, England.
On the ecology of heterotrophic micro-organisms in freshwater. The role of phylloplane fungi in the early colonization of leaves. Occurrence of filamentous fungi on decaying leaves in lake waters Albano and Nemi, central Italy. On certain species of Mucor with a key to all accepted species. Colonization of leaves by water-borne hyphomycetes in a tropical stream.
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Regulation of leaf breakdown by fungi in streams: The ecology of lower freshwater Phycomycetes in the tube experiment at Blehman Tarn. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal. Results and Discussion A total of 81 taxa distributed in registers were obtained table 1representing respectively: How to cite this article.