Mechanisms and Effects of Acid Rain on Environment
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure. . Occasional pH readings in rain and fog water of well below have been reported in industrialized areas . Long-term changes in soil chemistry may have already affected sensitive soils, . the acid rain controversy in the s was the adversarial relationship between U.S. and Throughout the s the major lawsuits involving acid rain all came from Acid rain is a popular phrase used to describe rain, snow, fog, or other. Acid rain is caused by a chemical reaction that begins when compounds like where they become part of the rain, sleet, snow, and fog that we experience different chemicals into the air that they have changed the mix of gases in the atmosphere. too acidic, these materials may not be able to neutralize all of the acids.
Within the Southern Hemispherepoleward is towards the South Poleor south.
Southwest of extratropical cyclones, curved cyclonic flow bringing cold air across the relatively warm water bodies can lead to narrow lake-effect snow bands. Those bands bring strong localized snowfall which can be understood as follows: The temperature decrease with height and cloud depth are directly affected by both the water temperature and the large-scale environment. The stronger the temperature decrease with height, the deeper the clouds get, and the greater the precipitation rate becomes.
Because of the ruggedness of terrain, forecasting the location of heavy snowfall remains a significant challenge. Monsoon and Tropical cyclone Rainfall distribution by month in Cairns showing the extent of the wet season at that location The wet, or rainy, season is the time of year, covering one or more months, when most of the average annual rainfall in a region falls.
Tropical rainforests technically do not have dry or wet seasons, since their rainfall is equally distributed through the year. The wet season is a time when air quality improves,  freshwater quality improves,   and vegetation grows significantly.
Soil nutrients diminish and erosion increases. The previous dry season leads to food shortages into the wet season, as the crops have yet to mature. Developing countries have noted that their populations show seasonal weight fluctuations due to food shortages seen before the first harvest, which occurs late in the wet season. Earth rainfall climatology On the large scale, the highest precipitation amounts outside topography fall in the tropics, closely tied to the Intertropical Convergence Zoneitself the ascending branch of the Hadley cell.
Mountainous locales near the equator in Colombia are amongst the wettest places on Earth. In Asia during the wet season, the flow of moist air into the Himalayas leads to some of the greatest rainfall amounts measured on Earth in northeast India.
Plastic gauges have markings on the inner cylinder down to 0. After the inner cylinder is filled, the amount inside it is discarded, then filled with the remaining rainfall in the outer cylinder until all the fluid in the outer cylinder is gone, adding to the overall total until the outer cylinder is empty. These gauges are used in the winter by removing the funnel and inner cylinder and allowing snow and freezing rain to collect inside the outer cylinder.
Some add anti-freeze to their gauge so they do not have to melt the snow or ice that falls into the gauge.
Weighing gauges with antifreeze should do fine with snow, but again, the funnel needs to be removed before the event begins. For those looking to measure rainfall the most inexpensively, a can that is cylindrical with straight sides will act as a rain gauge if left out in the open, but its accuracy will depend on what ruler is used to measure the rain with. Any of the above rain gauges can be made at home, with enough know-how.
Any particulates of liquid or solid water in the atmosphere are known as hydrometeors. Formations due to condensation, such as clouds, hazefog, and mist, are composed of hydrometeors. All precipitation types are made up of hydrometeors by definition, including virga, which is precipitation which evaporates before reaching the ground.
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Particles blown from the Earth's surface by wind, such as blowing snow and blowing sea spray, are also hydrometeors, as are hail and snow.
This includes the vast expanses of ocean and remote land areas.
In other cases, social, technical or administrative issues prevent the dissemination of gauge observations. As a result, the modern global record of precipitation largely depends on satellite observations.
The sensors are almost exclusively passive, recording what they see, similar to a camera, in contrast to active sensors radarlidar that send out a signal and detect its impact on the area being observed. Satellite sensors now in practical use for precipitation fall into two categories. Thermal infrared IR sensors record a channel around 11 micron wavelength and primarily give information about cloud tops. It also funded extensive studies on atmospheric processes and potential control programs.
From the start, policy advocates from all sides attempted to influence NAPAP activities to support their particular policy advocacy efforts, or to disparage those of their opponents. Government's scientific enterprise, a significant impact of NAPAP were lessons learned in the assessment process and in environmental research management to a relatively large group of scientists, program managers and the public.
Inthe panel of scientists came up with a draft report, which concluded that acid rain is a real problem and solutions should be sought. In Maythe House of Representatives voted against legislations that aimed to control sulphur emissions. There was a debate about whether Nierenberg delayed to release the report. Nierenberg himself denied the saying about his suppression of the report and explained that the withheld of the report after the House's vote was due to the fact that the report was not ready to be published.
Subsequent Reports to Congress have documented chemical changes in soil and freshwater ecosystems, nitrogen saturation, decreases in amounts of nutrients in soil, episodic acidification, regional haze, and damage to historical monuments. Meanwhile, inthe U. Congress passed a series of amendments to the Clean Air Act.
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Phase I began inand limited sulphur dioxide emissions from of the largest power plants to a combined total of 8. Phase II began inand affects most of the power plants in the country. During the s, research continued. This rule provides states with a solution to the problem of power plant pollution that drifts from one state to another. Inby which time the cap and trade system had been augmented by the George W. A European Perspective' a first use of the term 'citizen science' by R.
The first recorded example of the use of the term is fromdescribing how volunteers across the US collected rain samples to assist the Audubon Society in an acid-rain awareness raising campaign. The volunteers collected samples, checked for acidity, and reported back to the organization.
The information was then used to demonstrate the full extent of the phenomenon. Emissions of nitrogen oxides which are oxidized to form nitric acid are of increasing importance due to stricter controls on emissions of sulphur containing compounds.
Acid-producing gasses are also created by biological processes that occur on the land, in wetlandsand in the oceans. The major biological source of sulphur containing compounds is dimethyl sulfide. Nitric acid in rainwater is an important source of fixed nitrogen for plant life, and is also produced by electrical activity in the atmosphere such as lightning.
Human activity The coal-fired Gavin Power Plant in Cheshire, Ohio The principal cause of acid rain is sulphur and nitrogen compounds from human sources, such as electricity generationfactories, and motor vehicles.