Second World War (WWII) | The Canadian Encyclopedia
Relations with the Allies Members of the Connaught\us Own Rifles bidding farewell, New .. issued in the names of the US, Britain, Australia and New Zealand, But the atmosphere changed after casualties mounted. A few Australians flew in the Battle of Britain in August and September, but the home, and when the United States assumed responsibility for the country's defence, gun position manned by the 2/9th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery, Royal Australian . Online Exhibition - Australia's Northern Territory WWII: Northern Territory. When Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August , most Australians greeted There is no difference between the Johnnies and the Mehmets to us where The development of machine-guns and artillery favoured defence over attack.
Following the outbreak of war in the Pacific most elements of the Corps, including the 6th and 7th Divisions, returned to Australia in early to counter the perceived Japanese threat to Australia.
This operation ended in failure, and Nestor had to be scuttled on 16 June after being bombed the previous day. After this operation, the three surviving destroyers returned to the Indian Ocean.
The lead elements of the Division arrived at El Alamein on 6 July and the Division was assigned the most northerly section of the Commonwealth defensive line. Following this battle the division remained at the northern end of the El Alamein line and launched diversionary attacks during the Battle of Alam el Halfa in early September. After a lengthy period of preparation, the Eighth Army launched its major offensive on 23 October. The 9th Division suffered a high number of casualties during this battle and did not take part in the pursuit of the retreating Axis forces.
The corvettes also escorted convoys in the western Mediterranean before returning to the Eastern Fleet.British Weapons of WW2 (highlight) Vickers, Bren, Sten. Etc.
The two Australian fighter bomber squadrons provided close air support to the Allied armies and attacked German supply lines until the end of the war.
This special duties squadron dropped men and supplies to guerrillas in Yugoslavia and attempted to supply the Polish Home Army during the Warsaw Uprising in The RAAF, including thousands of Australians posted to British units, made a significant contribution to the strategic bombing of Germany and efforts to safeguard Allied shipping in the Atlantic.
The other services made smaller contributions, with two Army brigades being briefly based in Britain in late and several of the RAN's warships serving in the Atlantic. An Australian Army forestry group served in Britain between and It was joined by No. These men were not concentrated in Australian units, and were instead often posted to the Commonwealth squadron with the greatest need for personnel where they became part of a multi-national bomber crew.
Five Australian heavy bomber squadrons No. The aircraft are painted with invasion stripes. Australians took part in all of Bomber Command's major offensives and suffered heavy losses during raids on German cities and targets in France. In the view of Paul HasluckAustralia fought two wars between and Measures were taken to improve Australia's defences as war with Japan loomed inbut these proved inadequate. In December the Australian Army in the Pacific comprised the 8th Division, most of which was stationed in Malaya, and eight partially trained and equipped divisions in Australia, including the 1st Armoured Division.
Historical weaponry of the Australian Army
United States Military units also arrived in Australia in great numbers before being deployed to New Guinea. The Allies moved onto the offensive in latewith the pace of advance accelerating in From the Australian military was mainly relegated to subsidiary roles, but continued to conduct large-scale operations until the end of the war. Battle of Malaya and Battle of Singapore From the s Australia's defence planning was dominated by the so-called ' Singapore strategy '.
This strategy involved the construction and defence of a major naval base at Singapore from which a large British fleet would respond to Japanese aggression in the region. To this end, a high proportion of Australian forces in Asia were concentrated in Malaya during and as the threat from Japan increased.
Australian units participated in the unsuccessful Commonwealth attempts to defeat the Japanese landings, with RAAF aircraft attacking the beachheads and Vampire accompanying the British battleship Prince of Wales and battlecruiser Repulse during their failed attempt to attack the Japanese invasion fleet.
The division's first engagement was the Battle of Muarin which the Japanese Twenty-Fifth Army was able to outflank the Commonwealth positions due to Bennett misdeploying the forces under his command so that the weak Indian 45th Brigade was assigned the crucial coastal sector and the stronger Australian brigades were deployed in less threatened areas.
While the Commonwealth forces in Johore achieved a number of local victories, they were unable to do more than slow the Japanese advance and suffered heavy casualties. After being outmanoeuvred by the Japanese, the remaining Commonwealth units withdrew to Singapore on the night of 30—31 January.
Due to the casualties suffered in Johore most of the division's units were at half-strength. The commander of the Singapore fortress, Lieutenant General Arthur Ernest Percivalbelieved that the Japanese would land on the north-east coast of the island and deployed the near full-strength British 18th Division to defend this sector.
The Japanese landing on 8 February took part in the Australian sector, however, and the 8th Division was forced from its positions after just two days of heavy fighting.
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The division was also unable to turn back the Japanese landing at Kranji and withdrew to the centre of the island. These escapees included Major General Bennett, who was found by two post-war inquiries to have been unjustified in leaving his command. The role of these forces was to defend strategic airfields which could be used to launch attacks on the Australian mainland. While Lark Force was regarded as inadequate by the Australian military,  it was not possible to reinforce it before the Japanese South Seas Force landed at Rabaul on 23 January The outnumbered Australian force was swiftly defeated and most of the survivors surrendered in the weeks after the battle.
Reinforced battalions from the 23rd Brigade were sent to Koepang in West Timor ' Sparrow Force ' and the island of Ambon 'Gull Force' to defend these strategic locations from Japanese attack. At the time Darwin was an important base for Allied warships and a staging point for shipping supplies and reinforcements into the NEI.
The Japanese attack was successful, and resulted in the deaths of military personnel and civilians, many of whom were non-Australian Allied seamen, and heavy damage to RAAF Base Darwin and the town's port facilities. The sloop Yarra was also sunk off the south coast of Java when she was attacked by three Japanese cruisers while escorting a convoy on 4 March. Other Australian warships, including the light cruiser Hobart and several corvettes successfully escaped from NEI waters.
An army force made up of elements from the 7th Division also formed part of the ABDACOM land forces on Java but saw little action before it surrendered at Bandung on 12 March after the Dutch forces on the island began to capitulate.
As the US entered World War I, American soldiers depended on foreign weapons technology
The Australian Army's 16th and 17th Brigades formed part of the island's garrison at the time of the raid but did not see action. Additionally, the Army, although large, contained many inexperienced units and lacked mobility. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill attempted to divert the 6th and 7th Divisions to Burma while they were en route to Australia, but Curtin refused to authorise this movement.
As a compromise two brigades of the 6th Division disembarked at Ceylon and formed part of the island's garrison until they returned to Australia in August By mid the Army had a strength of ten infantry divisions, three armoured divisions and hundreds of other units.
It was five times as effective as contact or timed fuzes and was devastating in naval use against Japanese aircraft and so effective against German ground troops that General George S. Patton said it "won the Battle of the Bulge for us.
It had a versatile reliable design and was easy to produce, thus huge numbers were made and provided to both Britain and the USSR by the United States under Lend-Lease. Despite official opinions, the Medium Tank M4 was well liked by some Soviet tankers, while others called it the best tank for peacetime service. Both the British and the Soviets re-armed their M4s with their own tank guns. Unfortunately, the fairly short-barreled 75mm gun most Shermans came equipped with did not offer very good armor penetration even with specialty ammunition, especially against the then-new Panther and Tiger.
However, the British The other main modification was that the radio moved to an armoured box welded to the turret bustle, which also contained the much larger counterweight for the new gun.
The combination of British and American weaponry proved desirable, although despite the United States building a few pounder Fireflies from new, it never went into mass production and did not see action.
Military history of Australia during World War II
The US had its own 76 mm calibre long-barrel gun for the Sherman. While it wasn't as good as the pounder, it still had a much better chance of successfully engaging German heavy tanks especially at close range, offered consistent kill-power against more equally-matched opponents at all ranges, and didn't require major modification to fit like the pounder did. The Firefly thus remained a British variant of the Sherman. This was used in accordance with British tactical doctrine for tank destroyers, in that they were considered self-propelled anti-tank guns rather than aggressive 'tank hunters'.
Used in this fashion, it proved an effective weapon. The DD was an amphibious tank. A flotation screen gave buoyancy and two propellers powered by the tank's engine gave propulsion in the water. On reaching land the screens could be dropped and the tank could fight in the normal manner. The DD, another key example of combining technologies, was used by both British and American forces during Operation Overlord. Eisenhower during demonstrations and was readily accepted by the Americans.
The Americans did not accept the Sherman Crabwhich could have assisted combat engineers with clearing mines under fire, protected by armour.