Camphor can be reduced to either borneol or isoborneol (diastereomers) • Hydride What is the stereochemical relationship between borneol and isoborneol?. the presence of excess methanol. Draw and label the major product isoborneol and the minor product borneol (4pts). What is the stereochemistry at the new. Kinetic Production of Isoborneol through the Oxidation-reduction Sequences of Borneol First, borneol is oxidized through a reaction with sodium hypochlorite at . the relations between reactions rates of different reactions show differences. .. seemed to always be ready for any situation with a saying or quote that stuck .
In cipal among which are tea and camphor. In the value ofthese virgin forests grow stately camphor trees, filling the air camphor and its by-products amounted to 10, yen. Tt was a During the nineteenth century the structure of camphor oc-delight to the aborigines of Formosa to produce such a sub- casioned much curiosity on the part of chemists. Modernstance by chopping these magnificent trees into thin pieces, man has never been content to be restricted by nature andputting them through a simple distillation process, and sepa- the obvious desirable properties of camphor gave the incen-rating the camphor from the oil.
Then a refinement was tive to scientists to work out the secret of its structure and toaccomplished by taking advantage of one of the physical build it up from more available substances by synthetic proc-properties to sublime the pure material from the crude and to esses. It was early noted 8 that, by dehydration withtraders from the Near East and Europe procured it and car- phosphorous pentoxide, camphor was converted into p-ried it home as evidence of the attractiveness of the Orient.
It was employed hydroxy-p-cymene was formed. These results clearlyin Turkey by the end of the fourteenth century for medicinal pointed to a benzene skeleton. Various derivatives and reaction products fol- the other depends on economic considerations, such as originallowed. In Martius announced the existence of borneol, and Greek turpentine contains 95 per cent total pinene. Thein Gerhardt made camphor by oxidation of borneol. French product is next highest, and, as indicated, the Ameri-Weyl in showed camphor to be a ketone, as evidenced can contains 92 per cent.
One starts with pinene and goes tointerpretation of the structure of camphor. Camphor structures, as thought to be in and as knownto be infollow: CH2The year was in the midst of one of the most remarkable Cperiods of chemical developments the world has known.
HGerman chemists, as well as some others, undertook the prob-lem of duplicating camphor. Curiously enough, although the CAITPHORpractical goal has been attained, the natural product hasnever been exactly duplicated since it has the physical The other is the same through the camphene step but thenproperty of optical rotation whereas the synthetic product is converts the camphene to borneol or isoborneol and oxidizespractically inactive.
This difference detracts not at all from these to camphor: The pinene contents of gum and wood turpentine, respec-tively, are as follows: Cooling was maintained by means of a jacket. Substantial quantities mixture and introduced difficulties due to insufficient agita-were exported to the United States as shown by Table I. Much trouble was encountered in theDuring the 7-year period, toinclusive, the total generation and handling of the hydrogen chloride.
At firstcamphor imports averaged about 5, pounds annually. The earliest attempt to produce synthetic camphor in theUnited States was in when, according to Brooks Sthe The conversion of bornyl chloride to eamphene was carriedThurlow process was operated at Niagara Falls.
No ac- out by adding it to a mixture of cresol and sodium hydroxide,curate detailed account is available in regard to this venture. The eamphene was separated and given a distillation to re- It is certain that consideration has been given by various move terpene oils. This step of the process caused greatother manufacturers to the production of synthetic camphor, difficulty because of plugging of the condenser and becauseand undoubtedly considerable sums of money have been spent the design of the still did not permit complete separation of thein the development of processes and plant lay-outs.
It was essential to recover ereso! It is sequent runs. The reaction mixture was treated with water and the iso- bomyl acetate mechanically separated. It was then saponi- The large domestic supply of turpentine, the growing con- fied to isoborneol by treatment with alcoholic sodium hy-sumption of camphor in the United States, and its high prices, droxide.
Again, it was necessary efficiently to recover bothcoupled with the absence of any domestic producer which alcohol and sodium acetate. By drowning the saponifica-constituted a formidable and continuing threat to the fabrica- tion mixture, the isoborneol was obtained as a solid producttion of products in which camphor is an essential ingredient, and was then purified by a sweating process in agitatedled the du Pont Company into the manufacture of synthetic tanks.
The temperature had to The process used at that time followed closely the one de- be carefully controlled, and nitrous gases were evolved. Turpentine was distilled to When the oxidation was complete, the mixture was drownedyield a substantially pure pinene.
This was placed in large, in ice water. Great difficulty was encountered dominant position. Cheap Formosan and Japanese labor, within obtaining a high quality such as was required in the manu- its low standard of living, is the explanation of how the pricefacture of Pyralin.
It was attempted to purify the material of camphor could be and is being dropped to any necessaryby sublimation, but this was both ineffective and costly.
While all of the material was original du Pont effort was therefore abandoned as holdingused in Pyralin, it was not of as high quality as desired and no promise of becoming profitable. Operations are carried out comparatively easily today which ten or fifteen years ago would not have been The fact that the war was then over, together with the attempted.
For these reasons and because the use of camphoravailability of limited supplies of the synthetic product continued to expand, it seemed justifiable to the Newportwhich it was reasonable to expect would be increased if prices Chemical Company to study the synthesis of camphor. Un-continued high, caused the Japanese to revise their selling der the direction of Ivan Gubelmann a process was developedprices.
Table I I shows the price fluctuation of camphor over which, while conforming in general to the broad methoda period of years. In the du Pont Com- pany purchased the chemical business of the Newport Com- pany and concurred in their opinion that the new camphor process warranted commercial development on the basis of the then existing prices of turpentine and camphor. A plant was built at the Deepwater, N. In developing the present process, a great deal of attention was given to the simplicity of operations.
American condi- tions require the amount of labor to be kept at a mini- mum. Equipment had to be designed which would have a long life, thus assuring low repair costs, and which would also make possible the direct and economic handling of mate- rials. It may be used alone or in combination with other modalities, such as acupuncture This method involves the burning of moxa on or above the skin at the location of specific acupoints, or on or near the lesion [to be treated] itself.
The heat of the cauterization, as well as the properties of the moxa itself, serve to warm the qi and blood in the channels, expel cold and dampness, restore yang, and, in general, help to regulate the organs and restore health. Detailing the functions of moxibustion, Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion 15 says that it is used: To warm meridians and expel cold.
Abnormal flow of qi and blood in the body usually results from cold and heat. Cold causes obstructed flow or even stagnation of qi, and heat results in rapid flow of qi. Normal heat activates blood circulation and cold impedes its smooth flow.
Since stagnation of qi and blood is often relieved by warming up the qi, moxibustion is the right way to generate the smooth flow of qi with the help of the ignited moxa wool. In Chapter 75 of Miraculous Pivot it says: Another function of moxibustion is to induce qi and blood to flow upward or downward.
Stabilities of isoborneol vs borneol [HELP NEEDED]
For example, moxibustion is given to yongquan [KI-1] to treat the disorders caused by excess in the upper part and deficiency in the lower part of the body and liver yang symptoms due to upward flowing yang qi so as to lead the qi and blood to go downward If the disorder is due to deficiency in the upper portion and excess in the lower portion of the body and due to sinking of qi caused by deficiency, such as prolapse of the anus, prolapse of the uterus, prolonged diarrhea, etc.
To strengthen yang from collapse. Yang qi is the foundation of the human body. If it is in a sufficient condition, a man lives a long life; if it is lost, death occurs. Yang disorder is due to excess of yin, leading to cold, deficiency, and exhaustion of the primary qi, characterized by a fatal pulse.
At this moment, moxibustion applied can reinforce yang qi and prevent collapse. In Chapter 73 of Miraculous Pivot it says, "Deficiency of both yin and yang should be treated by moxibustion.
In Precious Prescriptions appears the following description: It is often said, "If one wants to be healthy, you should often have moxibustion over the point zusanli [ST]. For example, when moxa cones are burned on the end of acupuncture needles, the constituents of the moxa do not interact with the skin and the local effect is that of transferring heat to the acupoint. When a moxa pole is used, there is some transfer of active constituents to the skin, but not much; the effect is still mostly heat, but to a broader area.
When the moxa cone is burned directly on the skin, active constituents are transferred to the skin. This latter method was the most commonly used traditional approach, as best as one can tell from the old literature. When moxa is burned on top of another herbal material, such as a slice of ginger or garlic, cake of aconite, or mound of salt or powder of herbs in the navel, the heat will drive some of the ingredients of the interposing herbal material into the skin, but little of the moxa wool ingredients will penetrate.15 Romantic long distance relationship love quotes to melt his heart
Fresh ginger, one of the commonly used interposing materials, contains compounds similar to borneol and camphor small holes in the slice of ginger or slice of garlic permit a little of the moxa vapors to penetrate. Of course, with all moxibustion techniques, the smoke and vapors from the moxa are ultimately inhaled. The modern smokeless moxa poles are intended to eliminate this otherwise sure route to getting moxa ingredients internally, and might defeat part of the therapeutic action.
The Chinese technique of applying moxibustion for an extended period of time up to 30 minutes for a treatment sessionassures that the patient inhales a substantial amount of the vapors and smoke. The different styles of moxa application and the method of Keeping-fit Moxibustion the fourth application listed above was elaborated by Yuan Liren and Liu Xiaoming 16though with reliance on different points, namely shenque [CV-8], zhongwan [CV], yongquan KI-1], and zusanli [ST], the latter point was mentioned above and is a standard for many acupuncture and moxibustion treatments.
According to the authors, these points are selected and treated as follows: Frequent moxibustion on zusanli can invigorate the spleen and stomach, assist in digestion, and hence, strengthen the body and slow down the process of aging. Some ancient experts advocated the use of scarring moxibustion, placing moxa wool directly on the skin over the point so that a scar is formed after the local skin has developed a boil with pus. Constant application of scarring moxibustion will maintain the moxibustion boil, and this will help to strengthen the body and prolong life.
Another similar method, known as hanging moxibustion, is composed of hanging an ignited moxa stick centimeters over the point without touching the skin for minutes. Frequent moxibustion on this point can replenish qi and strengthen the body; it is especially suitable for the middle-aged and elderly. The particular procedure of this kind of moxibustion is as follows: The size of the moxa cone should vary with the individual conditions.
For people of strong constitution, use big cones in the size of a broad bean and for those of weak constitution, use the middle-sized cones as big as a soybean or use small cones in the size of a wheat grain. The burning up of one moxa cone is referred to as one zhuang. Moxibustion on shenque point requires zhuan g.
This point is an important point for reinforcement, capable of strengthening the spleen and stomach. Both moxa stick and moxa cone are advisable for moxibustion on this point, the duration of which may last minutes.
Frequent moxibustion at this point can strengthen the body and contribute to longevity, for it replenishes the kidney and invigorates yang. When using moxa sticks for moxibustion, it should last minutes, and in the case of using moxa cones, cones are usually needed each time.
The authors state that the duration of moxibustion should be at least minutes, but not more than minutes. A relatively longer duration of treatment is indicated for recovery from a serious disease or injury to recapture good health, in autumn and winter, on points of the abdomen i.
RELATIONSHIP OF BORNEOL, ARTEMISIA, AND MOXA
Relatively shorter duration of treatment is indicated for simple health maintenance and longevity promotion, for spring and summer treatments, when applying moxibustion to the limbs i. The aim of strengthening the body and achieving longevity cannot be achieved by just applying moxibustion once or twice, for it requires persistence for a long time. This does not mean that one should receive moxibustion every day.
For the purpose of convalescence for the weak and sick, the moxibustion may be applied once every days in the early stage; yet for reinforcement of the body or longevity, it should be once a week in the early stage.
And when it has shown some effect, the frequency can be reduced to once a month, and later, once or twice every three months, or even once or twice a year. So long as the practice is persisted in, good effect is sure to ensue.
A treatment along these lines was described by Song and Zhu 17 in one of the few articles on moxibustion in the Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. They treated 97 patients with gastric spasms or intestinal spasms with moxibustion, relying primarily on the abdomen points CV-8 along with ST for intestinal spasm and CV along with ST for gastric spasm.
The secondary points surrounding ST were picked because of the intent to treat an acute symptom, but the function is similar.
The authors report that nearly all the patients had their abdominal pain alleviated with one treatment. The technique used was: The moxa roll was ignited and placed over the selected points to produce a comfortable warm feeling.
When the heat became excessive, the moxa roll was moved around the points or a little higher to avoid burns. A piece of gauze could be laid over the point to protect the skin from accidental injury. Today, especially in the West, herbal moxibustion is sometimes substituted by heat lamps or other techniques that eliminate the artemisia altogether.
This may change the functions of moxibustion in a way that is not known. Also, many traditional moxa specialists believed that blistering of the skin was essential to the success of moxibustion when treating serious ailments, much the way that getting the qi reaction to needling was deemed essential to getting success with acupuncture therapy. This method is even mentioned in relation to Keeping-fit Moxibustion, which is for preventive health care.
Such intensive moxibustion is avoided in the Western practice, which follows more closely the method used for the gastric and intestinal spasm treatments, though most Westerners use very brief rather than prolonged moxa therapy in the study mentioned above, the duration of treatment was about 15 minutes per point at two points to yield a 30 minute moxa session. One theory of the effects of moxibustion and acupuncture is that the local tissue damage twisting of nerve fibers when stimulating acupuncture needles, extended cellular damage by the intense heat of moxibustion initiates a non-specific healing reaction that can have effects throughout the body.
Modern techniques of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy may rely, instead on mechanisms of stimulation that do not depend on tissue damage. However, it must also be recognized that some modern techniques may do little more than comfortably warm the skin and help induce general relaxation. An additional impact of moxibustion may be to help sterilize the atmosphere of the rooms in which it is being used.
In China an incense made of artemisia and atractylodes cangzhuwhen burned in an outpatient operation room, would reduce the bacterial count in the air. It also apparently inhibited viruses. According to Chinese evaluations, it could be used in kindergartens and nurseries to reduce the transmission of diseases, including chicken pox, mumps, scarlet fever, common cold, and bronchitis. Thus, when used in an acupuncture clinic, the smoke from moxibustion might help to prevent transmission of disease from one patient to another, which is especially important when dealing with immune-compromised patients.
This report was provided by Smith and Stuart: As this plant [artemisia] is so frequently used as a charm, and is held in a measure of superstitious veneration by the people, it is a little difficult to determine just where its remedial use in native therapeutics begins.