Relationship Strength Quiz
1: distance from side to side: width the height, breadth, and depth of each piece Other Words from breadth Synonyms More Example Sentences Learn More. exploring the size-depth relationship, this critical synthesis identified studies which contained One of the best known is the distinction between size or breadth . are measured in size tests, while the depth tests tend to focus on more implicit. How strong is your relationship or marriage? Find out by taking a short quiz online at Psych Central.
Here are a few ways you can find out. He's learned so much about coffee, he created the ultimate coffee guide to help anyone find great coffee beans, make cappuccino, butter coffee, cold brew, and the list goes on and on. Interestingly, if he tried whiskey and other alcoholic drinks, he wouldn't have the same depth of knowledge. He has chosen depth of knowledge within the realm of coffee and tea rather than a breadth of knowledge enjoying all beverages.
Every time he makes a choice to drink coffee instead of an alcoholic drink is a choice for depth over breadth. Here are some areas of your life where it would benefit you to take a closer look. This will enable you to better understand where you fall on the spectrum of breadth versus depth: Intimate Relationships - As Manson mentioned in his book, your intimate relationships can be a choice of either breadth or depth.
To some degree you may have both, but the two are correlated. If you desire sleeping with many partners from the opposite sex because of social conditioning or evolutionary hardwiring, this is a choice for breadth.
Breadth | Definition of Breadth by Merriam-Webster
If monogamy suits your tastes and you'd prefer to commit to one person, this is a choice of depth. General Relationships - There are plenty of people who think slinging business cards like ninja stars is the way to meet and connect with others. This approach is one of breadth and isn't inherently wrong, but rarely does it provide the same fruits as an approach based on depth. At least, each of the relationships between friends, business contacts etcmust have a certain amount of depth to amount to anything.
Career Choice - Your career is a choice between breadth and depth as well. Partners who come from different religious backgrounds may hesitate to share thoughts or attitudes that concern matters of faith. Men often refrain from expressing deep emotions out of fear of social stigma.
Such barriers can slow the rate of self-disclosure and even prevent relationships from forming.
Making Your Choice: Breadth Vs. Depth
In theory, the more dissimilar two people are, the more difficult or unlikely self-disclosure becomes. Stranger-on-the-train phenomenon[ edit ] Most of the time individuals engage in self-disclosure strategically, carefully evaluating what to disclose and what to be reserved, since disclosing too much in the early stage of relationship is generally considered as inappropriate, which can end or suffocate a relationship.
Whereas, in certain contexts, self-disclosure does not follow the pattern. This exception is known as "stranger-on-the-train or plane or bus " phenomenon, in which individuals reveal personal information with complete strangers in public spaces rapidly. In such situations, self-disclosure is spontaneous rather than strategic.The Love & Relationship Quiz
This specific concept can be known as verbal leakage, which is defined by Floyd as "unintentionally telling another person something about yourself". Some researchers argue that revealing our inner self to complete strangers is deemed as " cathartic exercise" or "service of confession", which allows individuals to unload emotions and express deeper thoughts without being haunted by the potential unfavorable comments or judgements. Some researcher suggests that this phenomenon occurs because individuals feel less vulnerable to open up to strangers who they are not expected to see again.
Individuals in a relationship who experience anxiety will find it difficult to divulge information regarding their sexuality and desires due to the perceived vulnerabilities in doing so.
In a study published by the Archives of Sexual Behaviorsocially anxious individuals generally attribute potential judgement or scrutiny as the main instigators for any insecurities in self-disclosing to their romantic partners. Rewards and costs assessment[ edit ] Social exchange theory[ edit ] Further information: Social exchange theory Social exchange theory states that humans weigh each relationship and interaction with another human on a reward cost scale without realizing it.
If the interaction was satisfactory, then that person or relationship is looked upon favorably. But if an interaction was unsatisfactory, then the relationship will be evaluated for its costs compared to its rewards or benefits. People try to predict the outcome of an interaction before it takes place.
Coming from a scientific standpoint, Altman and Taylor were able to assign letters as mathematical representations of costs and rewards. They also borrowed the concepts from Thibaut and Kelley's in order to describe the relation of costs and rewards of relationships.
Thibaut and Kelley's key concepts of relational outcome, relational satisfaction, and relational stability serve as the foundation of Irwin and Taylor's rewards minus costs, comparison level, and comparison level of alternatives.
A major factor of disclosure is an individual calculation in direct relation to benefits of the relationship at hand. Each calculation is unique in its own way because every person prefers different things and therefore will give different responses to different questions. An example of how rewards and costs can influence behaviour is if an individual were to ask another individual on a date.
If they say 'yes', then the first individual has gained a reward, making them more likely to repeat this action. However, if they reply with 'No', then they have received a punishment which in turn would stop them from repeating an action like that in the future. The more someone discloses to their partner, the greater the intimacy reward will be. When the individuals involved in the relationship hold positive values in this calculation, intimacy proceeds at an accelerated rate.
In the relationship, if both parties are dyad, the cost exceeds the rewards. The relationship then will slow considerably, and future intimacy is less likely to happen. The basic formula in which some can process this in most situations is: Outcome[ edit ] This means that people want to maximize their rewards and minimize their costs when they are in a relationship with somebody.
According to Altman and Taylor, relationships are sustained when they are relatively rewarding when the outcome is positive and discontinued when they are relatively costly when the outcome is negative. As defined by Thibaut and Kelley, comparison level is the standard by which individuals evaluate the desirability of group membership.
A group is defined as "two or more interdependent individuals who influence one another through social interaction". In this instance, the group refers to a dyadic relationship, but it can really be extended to any type of group.
That is, when groups fall above the CL they are seen as being satisfying to the individual, and when they fall below the CL they are seen as being unsatisfying. We take an average of outcomes from the past as a benchmark to determine what makes us happy or sad so that we may develop the threshold, or comparison level, in which an outcome appears attractive.
Past experiences shape one's thoughts and feelings about developing relationships, and in this way, an individual's CL is very much influenced by these previous relationships. Comparison level of alternatives[ edit ] A person's CL is the threshold above which an outcome appears attractive. Comparison level only predicts when we are satisfied with membership in a given relationship, or group. Therefore, Thibaut and Kelley also say that people use a comparison level for alternatives to evaluate their outcomes.
Basically, CLalt is determined by "the worst outcome a person will accept and still stay in a relationship. However, even if a relationship is unhealthy, a person might choose to remain in it because it is better than what they perceive the real world to be. Trends and sequences are one of the major factors when evaluating a relationship. Interpersonal communication[ edit ] The value of social penetration theory initially lies in the area of interpersonal communication.
Some of the key findings are described as follows. Scholars also use this theory to examine other factors influencing the social penetration process in close friendships. As Mitchell and William put it, ethnicity and sex do have impact on the friendship foster.
The survey results indicates that more breadth of topics occurs in penetration process in black friendship than white. Nurses could apply the theory into daily interactions with patients, as doctors could in their articulations when consulting or announcing.
In addition, the relationship between nonverbal behavior and the social penetration process has been of interest. Gender-based difference in self-disclosure[ edit ] Research demonstrates that there are significant gender differences in self-disclosure, particularly emotional self-disclosure, or expressing personal feelings and emotions, such as "Sometimes, I feel lonely to study abroad and to be away from my family.
In friendship between females, emotional attachments such as sharing emotions, thoughts, experiences, and supports are at the core, while friendships between males tend to focus on activities and companionships.
In addition, there is a gender difference regarding to topics revealed. Men tend to disclose their strengths. On the contrary, women disclose their fear more. For example, lesbian friendships and intimate relationships are reliant on mutual self-disclosure and honesty.
Social penetration theory
The problem is that for many lesbians, this process is not always as simple as it may seem. A lot of these women involve themselves in groups that are solely made up of only lesbians or groups that are only made up of heterosexual women to avoid their true lesbian identity.
It can be difficult for lesbian individuals to open-up about their sexual identities, because of the fear of being rejected or losing special relationships. Early studies have shown that patients' self-disclosure is positively related to treatment outcomes. Farber puts it, in psychotherapy "full disclosure is more of an ideal than an actuality. Therefore, the trust built over time among the patient and the therapist is essential to reach a mode of deep discussion.
To strengthen the alliance, cultivating a comfortable atmosphere for self-disclosure and self-discovery is important. When the therapist shared self-referent information to the patient it created trust and the patients perceived the therapist as being more "human.
Individuals with social phobia tend to adopt strategic avoidance of social interactions, which makes it challenging for them to disclose themselves to others and reveal emotions.
Self-disclosure is the key to foster intimate relationship, in which individuals can receive needed social supports. Close friendship and romantic relationship are two major sources for social supports, which have protective effect and play a crucial role in helping individuals with social phobia to cope with distress. In service industry, compared with securing new customers, maintaining long-term relationships with existing customers is more cost-effective.
The received information regarding to the taste and preference of the customers then can be used to provide tailored services, which in turn can positively strengthen customers' trust, commitment and loyalty toward the restaurant.
Expertise is positively correlated to both customer and server disclosure. Some scholars explored the arena of company policy making, demonstrating that the effect company policies have on the employees, ranging from slight attitudinal responses such as dissatisfaction to radical behavioral reactions such as conflicts, fights and resignation. In this way, sophisticated implementation of controversial policies is required Baack, Social penetration theory offers a framework allowing for an explanation of the potential issues.
Media-mediated communication[ edit ] Self-disclosure in reality TV[ edit ] Reality TV shows are gaining popularity in the last decades, and the trend is still growing.
Reality TV is a genre that is characterized with real-life situations and very intimate self-disclosure in the shows.
Self-disclosure in reality show can be considered as self-disclosure by media characters and the relationship between the audience and the media character is parasocial. Nonetheless, rapid self-disclorue of intimate layers is a norm in reality TV shows, and unlike in interpersonal interactions, viewers prefer early intimate disclosure and such disclosure leads to liking rather than inducing uncomfortable feeling.
The Internet has been thought to broaden the way people communicate and build relationships by providing a medium in which people could be open-minded and unconventional and circumvent traditional limitations like time and place. Since there are risks and there is usually more uncertainty about whether the person on the other side of the computer is being real and truthful, or deceitful and manipulative for one reason or another there is no possible way to build a relationship.
A lack of face-to-face communication can cause heightened skepticism and doubt. Since this is possible, there is no chance to make a long-lasting and profound connection. Panos,  Not only are people meeting new people to make friends, but many people are meeting and initiating romantic relationships online.
Celebrity's self-disclosure on social media[ edit ] Social media has turned to be a crucial platform for celebrities to engage with their followers. On social medias, the boundaries between interpersonal and mass communication is blurred, and parasocial interaction PSI is adopted strategically by celebrities to enhance liking, intimacy and credibility from their followers.
What is worth noting is that unlike in real-life interpersonal relationship, disclosure reciprocity is not expected in parasocial interactions, although through imagined interactions on social medias, followers do feel they are connected to the media figures.
Since social networking sites are relatively new phenomena, there are not as many studies done about how people disclose information online compared to a one-on-one interaction.
There have been surveys conducted about how social networking sites such as FacebookMySpaceTwitterLinkedInhi5myyearbookor Friendster affect interactions between human beings. On Facebook, users are able to determine their level and degree of self-disclosure by setting their privacy settings McCarthy, There was a study done about the connection on how couples or other romantic relationships have trustcommitment, and affection towards each other and the amount of self-disclosure each person gives to the one another.
There are several criteria to the study. One important is how the couple met. If they met before talking over the Internet, they are more likely to reveal personal information due to the higher levels of trust.
In other words, we are more probable to release information about ourselves if we can predict the behavior of the other person.
Walther, In other words, there could be deceitful or dishonest intents involved from people on the Internet.