Study Guide: How are Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Related to Each Other?
In cellular respiration, the electrons for the electron transport chain come from using light energy – we'll see that in the section on photosynthesis. The proton- motive force is a combination of a difference in proton (H+ ion). In many respects, photosynthesis and cell respiration are complementary cases, the production of ATP involves an electron transport chain and chemiosmosis. Similarities: In both photosynthesis and cellular respiration, hydrogen ions are pumped from an area of low hydrogen ion concentration to an.
Plants release chemical energy through photosynthesis. There are various ways to compare the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. These two cellular processes are similar in that they both produce energy.
Respiration, chemiosmosis and oxidative phosphorylation | Biology Biological Principles
However, the method in which each accomplishes this differs in various aspects. Redox Reactions Redox reactions are an important process for cellular respiration and photosynthesis. These reactions are also known as oxidation-reduction.
- Similarities and differences between chemiosmosis in photosynthesis & in cellular respiration?
- Study Guide: How are Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Related to Each Other?
In a redox reaction one reactant transfers partially or completely one or more electrons to another. The electron-losing reactant is known as the reducing agent and is considered oxidized in the reaction.
The substance gaining electrons is referred to as the oxidizing agent and is considered reduced. Oxidation-reduction in cellular respiration differs from photosynthesis in the direction of the electron transfer. In respiration, electrons are transferred from glucose molecules to oxygen. Therefore, glucose is oxidized, while oxygen is reduced in cellular respiration.
However, in photosynthesis, electrons travel from water to CO2. In cellular respiration electrons travel from organic molecules to oxygen, while in photosynthesis electrons travel from oxygen in water to a carbon-based molecule.
Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle Energy is created in cellular respiration through the oxidization of glucose and its derivatives. This occurs during two chemical processes known as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. Glycolysis breaks glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. This process occurs in the cytosol.
Respiration, chemiosmosis and oxidative phosphorylation
The Krebs cycle, occurring in the mitochondrial matrix, converts a derivative of pyruvate into carbon dioxide. Since chemiosmosis is a type of diffusion, ions will move across a membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration. Ions also move to balance out the electric charge across a membrane. Function of Chemiosmosis Chemiosmosis is involved in the production of adenosine triphosphate ATPwhich is the main molecule used for energy by the cell.
In eukaryotes, ATP is produced through the process of cellular respiration in the mitochondria. The flow of these protons down the gradient turns the rotor and stalk of the ATP synthase, which makes it possible for a phosphate group to join with adenosine diphosphate ADPforming ATP.Gradients (ATP Synthases)
The production of ATP during respiration is called oxidative phosphorylation. In aerobic respiration38 ATP molecules are formed per glucose molecule.
Since chemiosmosis plays a role in the creation of ATP during this process, without chemiosmosis, organisms would not be able to produce the energy that they need to live. The idea that ATP is synthesized through chemiosmosis was first proposed in by Dr. At the time, this was controversial, because it was more widely accepted that there was some intermediate molecule that stored energy from the electron transport chain. However, an intermediate molecule was never found, and eventually research showed that the chemiosmosis theory was correct.
Mitchell would later go on to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in for his contributions to science. This images shows, very generally, ions moving from high to low concentration during chemiosmosis. The most common method involving chemiosmosis in the production of ATP is cellular respiration in the mitochondria, the process of which is discussed above. All eukaryotic organisms have mitochondria, so chemiosmosis is involved in ATP production through cellular respiration in the vast majority of different types of organisms, from animals to plants to fungi to protists.
However, even though archaea and bacteria do not have mitochondria, they also use chemiosmosis to produce ATP through photophosphorylation.