Cultural tourism - Wikipedia
The Cultural Tourism Toolkit is designed to assist small regional communities to . NSW, provides a range of information and advice that can help cultural . A close relationship between the local council and the arts organisations in an area . 1 Cross-cultural Interaction between Tourist and Tourist-guides Rajib Timalsina* Abstract Between two different cultures, the mediators guide the interaction processes, . Due to the transitory and non-repetitive nature of the relationship, the. Cultural tourism is the subset of tourism concerned with a traveler's engagement with a country . approaching Tourism for critical research relating to the relationships between tourism, Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Cultural attractions.
What is Cultural Tourism? Cultural tourism allows travelers to be immersed in local rituals and routines, taking away not only pretty photos but also shared memories of unique experiences. For destinations, it encourages local communities to embrace their culture and boosts economic growth.
Developing culturally geared tourism programs encourages destinations to celebrate and promote what distinguishes their communities, and in doing so, provides the opportunity for authentic cultural exchange between locals and visitors.
Solimar has a long history of involvement in development projects that promote cultural tourism. Down the Road of Traditional Crafts BeforeMorocco has a vibrant craft industry, yet artisans had insufficient opportunity for direct sales. Solimar collaborated with Aid to Artisans and the Moroccan Ministry of Crafts to facilitate direct linkages between artisans and tourists in Marrakech and Fez.
This was achieved through establishing new or updating existing artisan and cultural heritage routes, and furnishing them with engaging creating marketing collateral. The team involved as many as 6, sale points and was successful in increasing artisan revenue.
As a result of this project, crafts and tourism in the area are now more linked than ever before. In Solimar addressed the conservation and regulation problems in Ethiopia by affecting a sustainable tourism development project in partnership with the Frankfurt Zoological Society. The team created 7 community tourism enterprises as well as branding and marketing tools aimed at awareness-building among foreigners and locals alike.
The local communities now leverage their cultural heritage, which includes expressive dances and crafts, in its tourism development.
This offers them alternative livelihoods that in turn benefit environmental conservation. Colorful Ethiopian Weaving Namibia: The tour guide's 'role' has been the subject of scholarly discussion and analysis for just over a decade. The researcher interviewed 30 tourist guides. The interviewed tourist guides are found having 17 to 37 years experience in tourist guide field.
All of them have received guiding license after attending training and since then they got involved in Tourism field as tour guide. Many of them have a different profession as they do not get so much involvement all the year long. They experienced that most of the Travel Agents 3 do prefer to give job for the young ones and do not prefer seniors tour guides. They suggested to use the experience of senior as they having a good knowledge of the Country, its Culture, its history etc; and they can give training and guiding job as they can be treated as unofficial ambassador of the Country, with whom the visitors as well as new professionals do have more contact and if they do something wrong it is the bad image of the Country.
Beside the guiding profession, tourist guides are found involved in teaching languages, founder of travel agencies, working in money exchange counters, hotels and resorts, consultancies and other professions.
When we follow closely the guided tour of Rome, certain features of the landscape become conspicuous by their absence. However, we cannot say that they are entirely absent; because they influence the path the tour must take Huskey, Weiler and Ham In one paper of Tom Selwyn Experienced guides make their commentaries meaningful by using common language and by employing analogies, metaphors and other methods of bridging the unfamiliar world of the tour route, content and environment to the things already known and familiar to the group.
Interaction Pattern Most of the Nepalese guides are from high status background. They take tourists to the walk around ethnic and low status people inhabited area. That walk has become one way through which ethnic status can be expressed and claims to modernity made by local people. This phenomenon illustrates how globalizing processes reinforce the particulars of locality by providing people with new frameworks through which to interpret their societies Guneratne, Thus, Guneratne argues that the ideology of modernity has replaced that 4 of caste as the way in which Tharus and Brahmans in rural Nepal understand inter-ethnic relationships.
Foreign tourists serve as a foil for this reinterpretation through the practice of the village walk, in which high-caste tourist guides conduct tourists on cultural tours of Tharu villages. The representation of Tharus as 'primitive', 'jungly', and living in another time meets both the desire of tourists for exotic experiences and that of high-caste Nepalese who wish to represent themselves as belonging to the modern world from which the tourists presumably come Ibid.
According to Tilden ; in McArthur, In the early s, the evolving ideas and principles were assembled into a publication especially about interpretation Kunwar, The interaction between the two blocs will be mainly between the big powers, less from big powers to small powers and only very little between the small powers Galtung, Relation between tourists and guides These basic traits of the "encounter" have been further amplified in later researches of tourism.
Due to the transitory and non-repetitive nature of the relationship, the participants do not have to take account of the effects their present actions will have on the relationship in the future; hence, there is neither a felt necessity nor an opportunity to create mutual trust. Consequently, such "relationships are particularly open to deceit, exploitation and mistrust, since both tourists and natives can easily escape the consequences of hostility and dishonesty" van den Berghe The asymmetry of the relationship and the quest for immediate gratification compound these possibilities Cohen, Tourism as commercialized hospitality cohen,guides depend upon tourists for their livelihood.
Guides try their best to keep good relation with tourists. They try to address different behaviour of tourists. Rassool and Witz construct a hypothetical tour of South Africa, visiting each element of the tourist vision, and provide a genealogy of these presented images of the past.
Rassool and 5 witz deal on during South Africa's transition to democracy in the early s, tourism came to be seen as the 'passport' to development and guides are agent to them. Guides are means of completing trips of tourists. Encouragement Tourist guides mentions that there is no recognition for their contribution in tourism field. Only one among thirty four tourist guides is awarded for his contribution in the field.
Gantabya Nepal Magazine gave special award for tourist guide in previous year. This is the landmark event in the field of tourist guide. Most guides think their work is as their recognition. They feel they have received award when tourists are satisfied with their work. They got tips quite a few times. Mediators and Tourism Development in Central Asia" by Cynthia Werner is the paper which established the ancient Silk Road as a tourism industry too.
Silk Road is not only the symbol of globalization and trade but it is the strong example of east-west cross- cultural interaction. Werner explores the ideas about interplay between "hosts" and "guests" and the impact of tourism on host communities. Within the past century, international tourists have increasingly sought exotic destinations in their pursuit of relaxation, escape, and adventure.
Recognizing the opportunity to earn valuable foreign currency, developing countries have catered to these desires by encouraging tourism development.
The interplay between "hosts" and "guests" and the impact of tourism on host communities have been recurring themes in the anthropological literature on tourism, but scholars recognize that these categories have several limitations.
The terms gloss over the wide variation that exists in the tourist experience for both guests and hosts, and ignore the important actors known as mediators Werner, Memorable event of guides Tourist guides experience many memorable events in their profession. The cross-cultural interaction gives an opportunity to encounter with various memorable events. Some tourist guides replied as in tourism field, you have new event or incident every day.
One guest was seriously ill in Pokhara and he had to be air lifted to Kathmandu immediately. The tourist guides never forgets that moment. He was to go through difficult situation and he had to handle the situation independently. There was strike organized in Chitawan while the group was going to Tiger Tops. Firing started near Bharatpur just in front of them and they felt they were lucky enough to get an escape safely.
After spending 2 nights in Tiger Tops, they decided to leave Chitawan. So, they woke up early 3am and drove for Lumbini and compelled to spend a night in Lumbini cutting short a night in Pokhara as the guest have busy schedule and might miss their flight in Kathmandu. They have nothing to do in Lumbini the whole day and it is risky to move to Pokhara in day light. Again they had to move in the middle of night for Pokhara and in Pokhara they had to stay in the hotel with no activities at all and the other day they left Pokhara early morning in a bus to catch a flight from Kathmandu.
They got back to Kathmandu driving in the night with lots of fear. There was no way to get communicate as all system got shut down by the Government. One tourist guide said, there are so many memorable events.
He had experienced and he had gone through many incidents. He doesn't like to remember. One tourist guide shared us as he along with his tour team was stucked at a fatal landslide area in Tibet. His guests as well as he were trying to get rid of the landslide region. At the mean time, the situation caused splitting of the group into 2 groups in a heavily rainy moment. They wear near Tibet-Nepal border.
The group with the tour guide was so lucky that they were handled by him.
But the remaining group members suffered lots of troubles in border area as they didn't know the local language and they were unfamiliar and alien to that very place. Negative impacts of tourists During cross-cultural connection between tourists and tourist guides, they face positive and negative part both.
Many tourist guides share about the negative impacts of tourists with the researcher. Some tourist guides refused to talk about negative impacts of tourists and some tourist guides would like to say as they didn't experienced negative impacts from tourist yet. Some negative impacts shared by tourist guides are mentioned as follow: There is sometimes one in a big group who you can never make happy and it is because of their negative attitude. Tourist guides think, it is very easy to handle individual tourist, if not small group of tourist and tourist in few number.
The concept of 'small is beautiful' is applied in tourism field. If the tour group is bigger in size, it is very hard to handle and satisfy the group 7 members. There is always found complaints and dissatisfaction. It is the common negative impacts found in tour guide field. No not at all, they do really have a good respect for people working in this profession as a Guide but sometime they do have a different view for other people in tourism Industry where they sometime behave as if they did paid for the service.
Most of the visitors normally do have a different kind of vision about our Country, People, Economy and various aspect a bad image being created by the books they read and they get astonished to see entirely different aspect quite contradictory to what believe and think about once they get the correct information as well as they watch and see by themselves. The budgeted Tourist do have some bad impact to our young generation, certainly Bhutan, Tibet and many other countries do not accept the budgeted Tourist.
But in our country, there are no such any hard and fast rules to control different types of tourist, their behavior and flow of tourist. The budgeted tourists always behave in negative attitude.
Most of the tourist guides are behave improper way by those tourists.
Of course, in a country like Nepal, where the government does not have proper planning for tourism, it produces some negative impact in the society. Tourist guides acknowledge some negative impacts due to cross-cultural interaction are drug consuming, human trafficking, sexual abuse, trivialization, environmental pollution etc. In Nepal, the local people started consuming drugs from the time of Hippies. Some guides found tourists as they are thinking as King.
They thought tourism is new approach of Dictatorship from strong nation to weaker one. Some tourist guides didn't find remarkably negative impacts but they considered negative aspects for more demanding habit of the tourists.
The tourists' behaviour It is natural that different age groups behave differently. It does really make a different behavior among different age group people but it is an ability of the person who is involved in tourism to handle the group making the program suitable to their choice and interest. Age difference defer in taste and interest. Normally, elders like more comfort and well arrangements, though the cost is a little higher, because they can afford, whereas the younger generation due to their economic constraint, they prefer adventure and cheaper.
Physically less than 50 yrs tourists are more 8 demanding. Young tourists are enthusiastic and they love trekking. Elder tourists rarely go for trekking and mountaineering, but they prefer city tour. Elder tourists are less demanding too. Tourist guides find very easy to handle aged tourists and younger tourists are more curious and very hard to be satisfied.
Tips and rewards Almost all tourist guides usually get tips from tourist. If the guides are able to satisfy the tourists, they get certain rewards from the tourists. Very few tourists don't reward their tour guides, otherwise, tourists give some rewards more or less to their guides. Most tourist guides remember about their highest amount of tips.
But these days, the tips and rewards do not really have the same satisfaction having the same amount of reward past in the experience of tourist guides. They think this is as kind of award you receive from your clients. It always depends on your work and honesty.
Do not forget that it is not compulsory.
Harder you work, more honesty you show towards your clients, bigger award you get either in terms of cash or in kind. Guides' International Exposer While talking about the chance of visiting abroad of tourist guides, many have got opportunity to visit foreign nations.
Cultural Tourism: Four Examples of How It Works for Destinations
Some got opportunity to visit more countries, whereas some got chance to visit few and some are not so lucky to visit abroad.
Not all tourists are lucky to get chance to visit abroad on the cost of others. Few tourist guides have experienced the foreign visit as on the cost of tourist or their clients. The mostly visited countries by Nepalese Tourist guides are: Tourist guides think when you are in tourism trade, visiting foreign countries is a part of your job. Tourist and gender In Nepal, there are very few female tourist guides. Male tourist guides feel comfortable to handle male tourists and young female tourists.
Male tourist guides are quite unsatisfied with elder female tourists. Tourist guides shared their experiences as most tourists are friendly and they become very open in a short period of time. There is no significant difference between the 9 behavior of male and female tourist. But gender is related to human and natural behavior, we need to feel same everywhere and there is no difference between Nepali and the visitor's accordance to gender perspective.
What the feelings shared among different gendered people is also applicable in the case of tourism interaction. Most of the visitors do come to enjoy their vacation so guides need to get study their feeling and choice of interest and get their selves mold into it the same aspect, so as to make them feel as if there are in their own home town with their friends and family.
This is something like a mirror. When you look at in your mirror, you see your own face. Similarly, you receive a kind of behavior from the tourist whether a male or female, the way you behave them. In reality, to handle only ladies group is very complicated job. Female are more active than male. Chinese tourists Chinese tourists are very much fond of foods.
They ask "Have you eaten? They focus on friendship.What NOT to do in New Zealand - 12 Tips for Visiting New Zealand
They respect other and become very loyal to host community. While sitting in row, they start to sit from left side. Left side is the place of honor for them. Chinese people rarely celebrate birthdays in abroad. The clothes with the colour yellow is usually reserved for the high class people. Chinese tourists give more focus on food in their daily life. Lee 42 said that it strengthens bonds with guest by providing tea. Drink tea to quench your thirst that will be well for your throat. Drinking tea when you are tired makes mouth and nose full of pleasant smell.
Drinking tea when you are bored makes your body calm and relax. Tea removes obstacles of your ways if you drink tea on right time. Noodle is their regular food item. Chinese people believe, noodle helps to live longer and healthy life.
They feel eating with making noise is very healthy for us. They prefer hot soup for their breakfast. Normally, they leave some leftovers. It is meant the person is satisfied with his food. They say 'Kaan-Pai" while drinking wine. Food is one of the great passions of the French people. There are special features of styles that they use to have their meal. Mostly they eat Daal, Bhat and Mo: French in cooking is highly refined and involves careful preparation, attention to detail, and the use of fresh ingredients.
Many tourists would like to follow the three stages of meal. They have drinks at the starting period, then they have their main course of food and at last with dessert, they love to have tea and coffee with other sweets.
Korean tourists 10 They usually wear their own dress- hanbok. Most of Korean tourists wear hanbok inside and western dress over that.