Writing curriculum - Aims, goals, objectives
Curriculum and instruction are the meat of the educational process. curricular and instructional issues for students with disabilities and their relationships to standards. Some state content frameworks focus on big ideas rather than specifics . attention include isolated treatment of paper-and-pencil computations, use of. A Reflection on Curriculum Development, Instruction and Design Essay To make this a reality, a teacher must consider the “big ideas or essential questions” . Curriculum and Instruction Theses and Dissertations Investigating relationships between educational technology use and other instructional elements using "big . Influence of mathematics curriculum implementation strategies on nature of instructional tasks, Total Papers Total Downloads Downloads in the past year.
Students are evaluated here through tests, and other quizzes, etc Fig. Components of Effective Teaching — Awotua- Efebo Teaching Principles In order to carry out an effective teaching task below is a list of helpful guide for a successful teaching. Planned teaching results in more learning. Teachers are encouraged to plan their lessons extensively; such defined goals helps the teacher to determine the methodology appropriate to the subject matter to aid teaching and learning.
Teachers should be able to guide students effectively to achieve the objectives of lessons taught. Students tend to achieve in ways they are tested, teachers are encouraged to test students in different ways to enhance their achievement rates in various domains. Students learn from one another.
Encourage students to work in groups while solving problems as this goes a long way to enhance learning. The Teacher A teacher is expected to have a total commitment in giving the children the type of education that trains them to growth and development. No educational system can be stronger than the caliber of the teaching staff. In recognition of this fact, the Federal Republic of Nigeria National Policy on Education stated, "All teachers in our educational institutions, from pre-primary o university, will be professionally trained.
The teacher is the sole implementer of the curriculum in the classroom. The main focus of the implementation of the curriculum is the learner, while the most important person in curriculum implementation is the teacher. The teacher is the prime mover of the educational system. Aghanta conceptualizes that as an input operator into the educational system, the teacher plays a major role in the conversion of raw materials particularly students into finished products e.
Qualities of a Good Teacher Vikoo The Characteristics of a good teacher can be grouped under two broad standards Academics of Humanistic standards Academic Standards — A teacher due to his training is grounded in his area of specialization. Vikoo opines that the knowledge required of a teacher can be condensed into three main types namely.
Knowledge of educational aims and contexts. The aims and objectives of education vary from societies based on the problems and needs of the society. The teacher needs to be grounded in the historical, philosophical, sociological and other issues the society is experiencing and how education can be used in solving them.
Knowledge and characteristics of the learner: A good teacher should understand how children learn and develop. Education revolves around the learner; a learner who has acquired a sound education should be able to contribute to the solutions of problems in society. The teacher here should understand and have the knowledge of the subject matter, delivery methods and knowledge of evaluation methods.
What is Learning Learning has been defined in various ways based on various theories explaining the process of learning. Learning involves changes in the behaviour patterns of an individual. Simply put, learning is the process of acquiring knowledge or skills and attitudes.
Most of the standards appeared to emphasize more abstract applications. In only two states did reading standards include specific reference to basic literacy skills. One such standard, "Students read and understand a variety of materials," included the expectation that students will use comprehension skills such as previewing, predicting, comparing and contrasting, re-reading, and self-monitoring as well as word recognition skills such as phonics, context clues, picture clues, word origins, and word order clues.
In a second state, the standard, "Comprehend a variety of printed materials," included the ability to recognize, pronounce, and know the meaning of words using phonics skills, language structure, context clues, and visual skills.
Across all seven states, social studies, history, and related standards included references to specific knowledge or skills, such as ''relate historical events of the 17th and 18th centuries in chronological order" or "use maps and globes to trace the migration of various groups during specific periods of time.
Although the references varied across the standards, the standards did suggest at least two implications for instruction. First, with respect to content, most of the standards call on students to be able to apply, demonstrate, or use some set of knowledge and skills, rather than just to know isolated facts or be able to perform basic computations or operations.
Second, in terms of instructional format, the standards refer to group problem solving and cooperation, to specific projects or demonstrations students are expected to develop, and to specific materials, resources, and technology students are expected to use. These pedagogical features noted by the committee in its examination of state standards appear to be part of a larger trend across national and state content standards.
The review of math and science standards by the Council of Chief State School Officers Blank and Pechman, indicated that within the 40 state standards frameworks reviewed, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics standards, the AAAS benchmarksand the National Research Council's science education standards were represented. A total of 32 of the frameworks provided pedagogical guidance within the standard and 30 of them included pedagogical strategies that were considered as "constructive and active" lessons.
This pedagogical influence reflects recent cognitive research on such questions as how to present and sequence information, how to organize practice, how to motivate students, and how to assess learning.
Findings from cognitive research have challenged the traditional view that most knowledge can be transferred more or less intact from teacher to learner. This research proposes that, in order for some kinds of learning to occur, students must play an active role in Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: This cognitive approach to instruction, called constructivism, asserts that the learner is the most important element in the teaching-learning situation—more important than materials, lessons, teachers, and other external factors.
The influential standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics NCTM exemplify how many of the new standards have embraced pedagogical principles such as constructivism: The NCTM standards call for problem solving to become the basis of instruction.
They also recommend increased attention to areas such as teaching students to develop a sense of what numbers signify, to understand the meaning behind mathematical operations, to develop strategies for learning basic facts, and to be able to justify their thinking p. Examples of areas to receive decreased attention include isolated treatment of paper-and-pencil computations, use of clue words to determine which math operations to use, an emphasis on one right answer and one correct method, and teaching by telling.
Similar principles are evident in the national science standards, which reflect a more experiential approach to learning National Research Council, It is important to note that the impacts of content standards on actual classroom curriculum and instruction are largely unknown at this time and are likely to be influenced by the extent to which the standards are mandated or voluntary and whether they are linked to assessment.
This section describes the post-school outcomes traditionally valued in special education for many students with disabilities and their instructional implications. It also provides an overview, drawn from empirical literature, of the characteristics of effective instruction for many students with disabilities. Student Outcomes and Their Relationship to Curriculum Historically, many of the outcomes expected of human service programs for people with disabilities were primarily oriented to protection and care.
This philosophy resulted in services that often isolated the individual and provided physical care rather than preparation for life in a heterogeneous world.
Writing Curriculum – Aims, Goals, and Objectives
With the civil rights movement of the past two decades, one aspect of which focused on educating students with disabilities in public schools, traditional outcomes were reconceptualized to encompass: This broader set of outcomes aims to better prepare students with disabilities to become productive and independent adults.
The importance of explicitly focusing the education of students with disabilities on the transition to adult life has been well documented Rusch et al. The model has eight outcome domains: A set of indicators has been developed to measure progress toward attainment of the desired outcomes.
This model suggests that these outcomes should be applicable to all students, not just those with disabilities Ysseldyke et al. A successful schooling experience will provide the student with the tools and skills necessary to make the transition effectively to the next stage of life.
For some, this means going on to college or another educational experience. For others, it means entering the workforce. The NCEO outcomes takes into account the skills students need to succeed in each domain. For students with severe disabilities, the "criterion of ultimate functioning" is often used to guide instructional and curricular planning Brown et al. In this approach, each student's long-term outcomes e.
The premise is that effective instruction involves systematic planning to determine the kinds of skills to be taught and the most effective contexts in which to teach and apply them.
Based on the criterion of ultimate functioning, instruction for students with severe disabilities has evolved into an ecological approach, meaning that the student's learning needs and functioning level are considered in conjunction with 2 The statutory meaning of the term transition services is "a coordinated set of activities for a student, designed within an outcome-oriented process, which promotes movement from school to post-school activities, including postsecondary education, vocational training, integrated employment including supported employmentcontinuing education, adult services, independent living, or community participation" Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments,Section [A], 20 U.
For elementary-school-age students, curricular priorities most often involve communication, socialization, self-help, motor skills, and functional academics Fredericks, ; Fredericks and Brodsky, ; McDonnell et al. For secondary-school-age students, curricular priorities include employment preparation and placement, personal management, and leisure McDonnell et al. For students with mild disabilities, a combination of academic, vocational, and functional outcomes is often selected with the specific mix of components dependent on individual student goals and needs.
Although several researchers have suggested that students with mild disabilities, particularly those identified as having a learning disability, may well be able to achieve beyond their current performance levels in academic content areas Carnine et al.
As students with mild disabilities enter junior and senior high school, they face an array of expectations similar to those of students without disabilities. In many schools, these students are expected to earn high school diplomas and to meet the same coursework requirements as students without disabilities. Research has identified several important components of effective programming that can help high school students with mild disabilities meet these expectations.
For those who intend to move on to postsecondary education, these elements include curricula that use a variety of approaches and instruction that teaches students "how to learn"; a system for coordinating the efforts of teachers, school administrators, parents, and community agencies; a transition component that teaches decision-making, problem-solving, and goal-setting skills; and an evaluation component that enables school personnel to systematically assess and refine the specific educational strategies being used for a student Schumaker et al.
For students whose primary option is to enter the work world immediately after school, the curriculum will focus more on the development and application of functional or compensatory skills. A growing body of research suggests that training in natural environments is an important instructional tool for the skill to be useful and maintained over time in community work settings McDonnell et al.
There also has been considerable research during the past decade about strategies for improving the employment potential of students with disabilities. Research and demonstration programs have shown that many individuals can take their place in the community workforce if provided with comprehensive employment training. Results suggest that these training programs are best initiated while the student is still in school, so that valuable instructional time is not lost.
Research has indicated further that effective employment preparation programs for students with disabilities include: Students with disabilities may find their employability affected by another issue above and beyond the actual skills that they have achieved—namely, whether they have received a high school diploma.
States take various approaches to awarding high school diplomas or other school completion credentials to students with disabilities who do not meet traditional criteria. Some students, for example, receive a nonstandard diploma or certificate of attendance see Chapter 3. This issue of credentialing is likely to assume greater importance in a climate of standards-based reform because some states are linking receipt of a diploma to attainment of state content and performance standards.
Some students with disabilities who do not reach state standards, and thus do not meet high school diploma criteria, may find themselves disadvantaged in the job market regardless of the educational outcomes they can demonstrate Box In sum, special education has long valued educational outcomes that are broader than the academically oriented outcomes exemplified in state content standards developed thus far.
The emphasis on post-school outcomes has shaped the curricular and instructional experiences of many students with disabilities.
Curriculum and Instruction | Open Access Articles | Digital Commons Network™
Characteristics of Effective Special Education Instruction Research provides a great deal of information about what constitutes an effective instructional environment for students with disabilities. We discuss three broad characteristics of effective instruction, each supported by research as important for enhancing learning among many students with disabilities: Since a high school diploma is the minimum requirement for a variety of employment opportunities, some educators are concerned about the impact standards-based reform could have on the high school credentialing process for a number of students, including some with disabilities.
Over the last several decades, as the proportion of high school students receiving a high school diploma has increased, not having a diploma is regarded as damning to one's job prospects. At the same time, having a diploma has seemed, for some time now, to be only minimally impressive to employers Bishop, ; Hawkins, ; Pedulla and Reidy, Some argue that there is no substantive relationship between academic content and the awarding of a high school diploma Bishop,; Sedlak et al.
They see the move to ratchet up standards required for a diploma as an attempt "to hold schools to standards that the lay public could easily measure and understand" Sedlak et al.
Raising standards in a credible way is thus a response to employer concerns about the devaluing of a diploma, as well as to more general concerns about U. Some students with disabilities in certain states receive differentiated diplomas, which distinguish students following a rigorous academic track from those following a minimally academic or vocational track.
The latter group receives certificates of attendance or other nonacademic diplomas see Chapter 3. Thus, students with disabilities operate in a credentialing universe much more complex than their general education counterparts. Potential employers may face difficulty in putting an applicant's credential in the appropriate context, given the diversity in the credentialing of students with disabilities. This diversity makes it that much harder for students with disabilities to showcase their achievements and abilities.
A number of issues about credentialing for students with disabilities warrant attention. End-of-course tests are too broad and too infrequently administered to provide information that can be used by teachers or students to inform decisions about teaching or learning on a day-to-day basis.
Thus, the content of the tests should be matched to challenging learning goals and subject matter standards and serve to illustrate what it means to know and learn in each of the disciplines. Because advanced study programs in the United States are strongly influenced by high-stakes assessment, the committee is especially concerned with how this form of assessment can be structured to facilitate learning with understanding.
It is well known that such assessments, even coming after the end of instruction, inevitably have strong anticipatory effects on instruction and learning. Thus if high-stakes assessments fail to elicit complex cognition and other important learning outcomes, such as conceptual understanding and problem solving, they may have negative effects on the teaching and learning that precede them. In designing such assessments, then, both psychometric qualities and learning outcomes should be considered.
If end-of-course tests are to measure important aspects of domain proficiency, test makers need to have a sophisticated understanding of the target domain.
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They must understand the content and the process dimensions that are valued in the discipline and then design the test to sample among a broad range of these dimensions Millman and Greene, Doing so is complicated, however, by the fact that an assessment can only sample from a large universe of desirable learning outcomes and thus can tap but a partial range of desirable cognitions. Consequently, concerns will always arise that a particular assessment does not measure everything it should, and therefore the inferences drawn from it are not valid.
Similarly, the selection of tasks for an assessment may be criticized for measuring more than is intended; an example is word problems on mathematics tests that require high levels of reading skill in addition to the mathematics ability that is the target of the assessment. To ensure the validity of inferences drawn from tests, a strong program of validity research must be conducted on all externally designed and administered tests.
Assessments that invoke complex thinking should target both general forms of cognition, such as problem solving and inductive reasoning, and forms that are more domain-specific, such as deduction and proof in mathematics or the systematic manipulation of variables in science. Given that the goals of curriculum and assessment for advanced study are to promote deep understanding of the underlying concepts and unifying themes of a discipline, effective assessment should reveal whether students truly understand those principles and can apply their knowledge in new situations.
The ability to apply a domain principle to an unfamiliar problem, to combine ideas that originally were learned separately, and to use knowledge to construct new products is evidence that robust understanding has been achieved Hoz, Bowman, and Chacham, ; Perkins, Meaningful assessment also includes evidence of understanding that is qualitative and quantitative in nature, and provides multiple modalities and contexts for demonstrating learning.