A single person who would like to find a great relationship is one step away from it, with Not as bad when you look at it that way, right? But if someone went to school to learn about how to pick a life partner and take . The types of fear our society (and parents, and friends) inflict upon us—fear of being. A mentor will try to be aware of these changes and vary the degree and type a good mentor seeks to help a student optimize an educational experience, If you are unsure whether a relationship is "too personal," you are probably not alone. A good place to find additional mentors is in the disciplinary societies, where. understand the relationship between society and education system. and different institutions of society. You must be aware about different forms of relations in your family, . John Dewey writes that 'we are apt to look at the school from an.
The program emphasizes the linkage between education and action, whereby the educational goal is not just to master systematic knowledge and skills offered in school, but also to empower learners to solve the problems in daily life. Let us look at educational evaluation as an example. The school-based learning assessments do not include the data on learning performance of those students who tend to be frequently absent from school or on unenrolled school-age children, thus providing a partial overview of learning output in school.
Such assessments are often collected and compiled at the central level after administering the assessment in schools without school-based analysis or feedback to draw some practical implications for further pedagogical and managerial strategies at the school level. Educational evaluation tends to be regarded as a professional and policy matter, managed by central government officials and professionals such as university professors and senior teachers, leaving out other stakeholders including parents, community members, and students as sole beneficiaries.
However, since the mids, civil society organizations have emerged that challenge the closed form of educational evaluation and decision-making process on quality of education. The Annual Status of Education Report ASER in India was the pioneer in this regard and conducted the learning assessment forchildren in 5, villages in all parts of India in Such household-based learning assessment did not aim only to assess learning achievement of school-age children but also to promote discussion on quality of education with a wide range of people at the community level for social change.
UWEZO, a civil society organization established in in East Africa, conducts a large-scale household-level learning assessment for the purpose of forming a civil society to take action with respect to the quality of basic education.
UWEZO conducts annual household-based Grade 2-level learning assessment in math and reading for children ages 6 to 16 years in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.
UWEZO challenges the conventional norms that teachers and education specialists handle quality issues in education by opening up the forum to the public to raise multiple voices to school.
Accountability Mechanisms for Education Service Delivery The role of community in school management attracted attention in the s, when the mainstream idea, that government is the sole actor to provide educational services, was challenged, and community-led alternative education programs were proposed as more relevant and effective for providing basic education. Since the s, community has become the main actor of development, not the recipient, and participatory approaches in learning, such as Participatory Learning and Action PLAwere adopted.
Many donor agencies shifted their targets of assistance to non-governmental organizations NGOs and civil society organizations CSOsaway from inefficient and corrupt governments. The critical role of community was further explored by the World Bankwhich provides an analytical framework of its accountability mechanism for the improvement of service delivery, as shown in Figure 1.
There are long and short routes of accountability for schools to account for their service to the beneficiaries. The long route of accountability is for the citizens to elect the political leaders who then formulate education policies to respond to the will of the voters and to direct and supervise schools to deliver the service demanded by the citizens.
With a precondition that each institution could maintain autonomy, citizens as the clients of public service utilize votes to enhance the control of central and local governments over service delivery institutions and to oversee these institutions more effectively through the direct exercise of client power.
Accountability framework for school management. Nishimura, based on World Bankp.
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The short route of accountability is to increase client power, which is power to demand educational services that match client needs by directly raising voices and asking for explanation of schools on their services. The short route of accountability is ensured by forming a school management committee or school council that consists of representatives of parents and community members plus a head teacher to discuss the school plan and challenges facing the school to collaboratively improve quality of education.
In many developing countries, it is quite difficult to ensure the long route of accountability due to corruption and mismanagement on the part of politicians and government officials and unclear election processes.
Thus, much attention is being paid to enhancing client power through the short route of accountability.
There are numerous examples of using this short route of accountability. These West African countries had low enrolment rates, high levels of poverty, and serious public financial constraints, altogether inducing the lack of classrooms and of parental understanding and cooperation for schooling.
- Community Participation in School Management in Developing Countries
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Teacher absenteeism and the lack of capacity of teachers resulted in learning crises in schools. The School for All Project aimed at functional school management committee SMC and adopted the minimum package of democratic election for the SMCs, participatory planning and implementation of school improvement plans, collaborative monitoring and evaluation of school activities, and accounting through community gathering.
Community members became more active in participating in various school activities such as classroom construction and implementation of supplementary and night classes, and purchased and procured textbooks and learning materials. Nevertheless, they have common goals, to improve the quality of education by ensuring information sharing between school and community, to overcome the distrust and distance between them, and by promoting the participation of community members to collaboratively manage local schools.
They also share potentials to improve accountability by linking the government, teachers, parents, community, and students to share information, to raise awareness, to dialogue, and to act together.
Such bottom-up initiatives to ensure accountability seem to be key to expanding educational opportunities and improving the quality of education, especially in fragile states with weak administrative systems. Types and Levels of Participation It is important to note that the types of participation vary depending on the purpose of participation and the actual power devolved to the community. The categories in which power is devolved include budgeting i.
Nevertheless, various types of SBM exist in the types and levels of devolved power. Latin American countries have several examples of power devolved to the community for appointment and dismissal of teachers, while other parts of the world generally devolved power of budget formation, a certain level of pedagogical approaches and educational content, and maintenance of school infrastructure to community.
Monitoring attendance of students and teachers tends to be managed at the school level, while evaluation of teachers and learning performance is often in the hands of the central government. Devolved power is dynamically re-allocated within the system among school, community, local government, and central government in various educational reforms.
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There are political, economic, and historical backgrounds against diverse allocations of decision-making powers within the education systems. In theory, democratic school management intends to democratize a society. In reality, however, community often becomes responsible for school management as an alternative to the unstable government after the political turmoil.
There are also countries with diverse ethnic and cultural groups where decentralization becomes an option to weaken the conflict between groups. From the economic perspective, decentralization is often regarded as a means to utilize financial, physical, and human resources at the local level when facing the constraints of the national budget.
Historically, how a school was established in the society determines the role of the community. For instance, in SSA, it was churches and communities that constructed schools during the colonial period and that kept their contributions to school after independence due to low capacity of the government.
In short, community has played an important role since the origin of school education in these countries. The degree of participation also requires attention.
The ladder of participation, by Arnsteinis well known to indicate the levels of participation. According to Arnstein, there are eight ladders categorized as client power i. Even if the decision-making power is devolved to the community level, how power is distributed among multiple groups of community members and to what extent participation takes place need careful speculation, as we see a variety of impediments in the process later, in the section on empirical literatures.
The underlying belief is that the closer the decision-making power is to local communities, the more relevant and efficient the consequent resolutions will be. In more concrete terms, there are three essential components of school management in the theory of SBM, namely, autonomy, assessment, and accountability for improving the learning outcome Barrera-Osorio et al.
SBM has also attracted attention due to the lack of perspectives on school management and their relation to learning outcome in the previous research. For instance, many input-output analyses based on the education production function have discussed possible factors affecting performance of students while paying less attention to how inputs are managed and interacted with at school.
Outputs are measured by test scores, promotion rate, dropout rate, and so on. JICA Research Institute further contributed to developing questionnaires at the school and government levels to capture different levels of intent and implementation of an education policy, focusing on school autonomy and accountability domain.
The SABER data on the school autonomy and accountability domain allows us to analyze how policy intent and implementation of school management is associated with learning achievement at the school level. Evidence is expected to accumulate in the coming years, but some of the research on Senegal and Burkina Faso indicate that school autonomy and accountability are moderately associated with educational outcomes such as access to school, learning improvement, and gender equality Nishimura, unpublished manuscript; Yuki et al.
Empirical Literature on Community Participation in School Management Impact of Community Participation The impact of community participation in school management is mixed at best in the past literatures. Taniguchi and Hirakawa recently suggested some indirect positive relationship between community participation and learning achievements of pupils through improved school management in rural Malawi. In Senegal, a recent study that used a randomized control trial method reports that the impact of school grants was seen on French, mathematics, and oral reading test scores of Grade 3 students, especially on girls with high ability levels at baseline Carneiro et al.
Reviewing a wide range of the past empirical literatures, Bruns et al.
In contrast, Hanushek et al. A number of other studies, based mostly on qualitative case studies, have posited the challenges of community participation in school management in terms of social structure, the social and cultural aspects of individual and organizational behaviors, and political intervention in community participation.
Impediments of Community Participation A number of qualitative research efforts indicate that the devolution of decision-making power to school and community does not automatically result in exercise of devolved power due to social structure, attitude and culture of individuals and organizations, and political intervention in community participation.
Contextual understanding of participation is of primary importance to clarify diversity in the results of community participation in school management in developing countries.
Social Structure The past literatures suggest that structural factors that cause low accountability are two-fold, namely, the lack of autonomy of each institution and severe inequality in the society Bruns et al.
Social inequality tends to reproduce unequal client power and quality of education among schools under the decentralization policy. Kristiansen and Pratikno also note that decentralization in Indonesia brought an increase of education expenditure of parents and socio-geographical disparities.
Abolition of school fees, often called universal primary education policy or free primary education policy, attempts to ensure equal educational opportunity, while this policy minimizes local decision making power by enhancing central control over school finance i. In reality, however, parents and community members bear the cost of education in forms other than tuition fees e. Individual Attitude and Organizational Culture The second major challenge is more to do with behavioral patterns of people, such as attitude and culture.
Numerous cases at the school level also showed that organizational culture and conservative attitudes of teachers and administrators did not exercise the devolved power in reality.
Where obedience to authority is a social norm, local district officers and community members do not seem to practice devolved decision making Chapman, ; Varghese, In Asian countries, it was reported that parents, teachers, and principals preferred maintenance of the status quo to taking a risk of undertaking a reform, and thus the devolved power did not result in education reforms for improvement at the school level Chapman, Attitudinal issues are also indicated at the community level.
For instance, the decentralization policy, planned and led by the central government, weakened school management due to a lack of consensus building among community members, that they are the ones who would manage schools and create a new learning environments under the new policy in the Philippines Chapman, Furthermore, as community members lacked the willingness to change the situation, and lacked as well the understanding and confidence necessary to discuss the quality of education, community participation did not lead to an improvement in the quality of education in Ghana and the Philippines Chapman, ; Chapman et al.
An adviser might or might not be a mentor, depending on the quality of the relationship. A mentoring relationship develops over an extended period, during which a student's needs and the nature of the relationship tend to change.
A mentor will try to be aware of these changes and vary the degree and type of attention, help, advice, information, and encouragement that he or she provides. In the broad sense intended here, a mentor is someone who takes a special interest in helping another person de- Page 2 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Adviser, Teacher, Role Model, Friend: The National Academies Press.
Some students, particularly those working in large laboratories and institutions, find it difficult to develop a close relationship with their faculty adviser or laboratory director.
They might have to find their mentor elsewhere-perhaps a fellow student, another faculty member, a wise friend, or another person with experience who offers continuing guidance and support.
In the realm of science and engineering, we might say that a good mentor seeks to help a student optimize an educational experience, to assist the student's socialization into a disciplinary culture, and to help the student find suitable employment. These obligations can extend well beyond formal schooling and continue into or through the student's career. The Council of Graduate Schools cites Morris Zelditch's useful summary of a mentor's multiple roles: Good mentors are able to share life experiences and wisdom, as well as technical expertise.
They are good listeners, good observers, and good problem-solvers. They make an effort to know, accept, and respect the goals and interests of a student. In the end, they establish an environment in which the student's accomplishment is limited only by the extent of his or her talent. Page 3 Share Cite Suggested Citation: In general, however, each relationship must be based on a common goal: You as mentor can also benefit enormously.
Different students will require different amounts and kinds of attention, advice, information, and encouragement. Some students will feel comfortable approaching their mentors; others will be shy, intimidated, or reluctant to seek help.Why We Pick Difficult Partners
A good mentor is approachable and available. Often students will not know what questions to ask, what information they need, or what their options are especially when applying to graduate programs. A good mentor can lessen such confusion by getting to know students and being familiar with the kinds of suggestions and information that can be useful.
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In long-term relationships, friendships form naturally; students can gradually become colleagues. At the same time, strive as a mentor to be aware of the distinction between friendship and favoritism. You might need to remind a student-and yourself-that you need a degree of objectivity in giving fair grades and evaluations. If you are unsure whether a relationship is "too personal," you are probably not alone.
Consult with the department chair, your own mentor, or others you trust. You might have to increase the mentor-student distance. Students, for their part, need to understand the professional pressures and time constraints faced by their mentors and not view them as merely a means-or impediment-to their goal. For many faculty, mentoring is not their primary responsibility; in fact, time spent with students can be time taken from their own research. Students are obliged to recognize the multiple demands on a mentor's time.
At the same time, effective mentoring need not always require large amounts of time. An experienced, perceptive mentor can provide great help in just a few minutes by mak- Page 5 Share Cite Suggested Citation: This section seeks to describe the mentoring relationship by listing several aspects of good mentoring practice.
A good mentor is a good listener. Hear exactly what the student is trying to tell you-without first interpreting or judging. Pay attention to the "subtext" and undertones of the student's words, including tone, attitude, and body language.