Industrial relations - Wikipedia
Employee and Labor. Relations. [Type the document subtitle]. Employee Relations, Classification & Compensation. Office of Human Resources. Oregon State. Labor relations specialists interpret and administer labor contracts regarding issues HR Specialist (Employee/Labor Relations) - DC Department on Disability. Human resources management plays an important role in business. The overall goal for HR is to make sure that employees are in the right.
Militant trade unions are thus frequently supported. History[ edit ] Industrial relations has its roots in the industrial revolution which created the modern employment relationship by spawning free labour markets and large-scale industrial organizations with thousands of wage workers.
Low wages, long working hours, monotonous and dangerous work, and abusive supervisory practices led to high employee turnover, violent strikesand the threat of social instability. Intellectually, industrial relations was formed at the end of the 19th century as a middle ground between classical economics and Marxism ,[ citation needed ] with Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webb 's Industrial Democracy being a key intellectual work.
Institutionally, industrial relations was founded by John R. Commons when he created the first academic industrial relations program at the University of Wisconsin in Wight Bakkewhich began in Chamberlain at Yale and Columbia universities. Industrial relations was formed with a strong problem-solving orientation  that rejected both the classical economists' laissez-faire solutions to labour problems and the Marxist solution of class revolution.
By the early 21st century, the academic field of industrial relations was often described as being in crisis. In policy-making circles, the industrial relations emphasis on institutional intervention is trumped by a neoliberal emphasis on the laissez-faire promotion of free markets.
In practice, trade unions are declining and fewer companies have industrial relations functions. The challenge for industrial relations is to re-establish these connections with the broader academic, policy, and business worlds.
Theoretical perspectives[ edit ] Industrial relations scholars such as Alan Fox have described three major theoretical perspectives or frameworks, that contrast in their understanding and analysis of workplace relations.
The three views are generally known as unitarism, pluralism, and the radical or critical school. Each offers a particular perception of workplace relations and will, therefore, interpret such events as workplace conflict, the role of unions and job regulation differently.
The perspective of the critical school is sometimes referred to as the conflict model, although this is somewhat ambiguous, as pluralism also tends to see conflict as inherent in workplaces.
Radical theories are strongly identified with Marxist theoriesalthough they are not limited to these. In particular, the two predominant sub-groups in the pluralist perspective are the management and trade unions. The pluralist perspective also supports that conflict is inherent in dealing with industrial relations since different sub-groups have different opinions in the day-to-day operations.
Applicants usually have a bachelor's degree in labor relations, human resources, industrial relations, business, or a related field. However, the level of education and experience required to become a labor relations specialist varies by position and employer. Education for Labor Relations Specialists Labor relations specialists usually have a bachelor's degree.
Some schools offer a bachelor's degree in labor or employment relations. These programs focus on labor-specific topics such as employment law and contract negotiation.
Labour Relations and Human Resources Management
Candidates also may qualify for labor relations specialist positions with a bachelor's degree in human resources, industrial relations, business, or a related field. Coursework typically includes business, professional writing, human resource management, and accounting. Candidates can gain experience as human resources specialistscompensation, benefits, and job analysis specialistsor human resources generalists before specializing in labor relations. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations for Labor Relations Specialists Some colleges and universities offer labor relations certificates to specialists who prefer greater specialization in certain topics, such as mediation.
Earning these certificates give participants a better understanding of labor law, the collective bargaining process, and worker grievance procedures.