pollinating fig wasps: Topics by posavski-obzor.info
For the wasp mother, however, devotion to the fig plant soon turns tragic. of which just trust the wind to blow their pollen where it needs to go. Agaonids are the only pollen vectors for fig trees and agaonid larvae feed exclusively correlation between fig and wasp phylogenies. Using .. to N.R.; grants from the Leverhulme Trust, NERC, the Royal Society, and the. Recent studies have shown that fig trees, wasps and orangutans have had a mutually beneficial relationship for thousands of years in the kind.
The opening is so small that when climbing in, the wasp tears her wings and antennae. This means that she will never be able to leave. She lays her eggs and lives the rest of her short life inside that tiny fig.
New phase proposed in the relationship between figs and wasps
Her eggs grow inside the fig flower and hatch several days later. The newly hatched wasps mate with other wasps that were born in the same fig. After mating, the males dig a hole in the fig that allows the females to fly out and find new figs. The males do not have wings, so they cannot leave, and die inside the fig in which they were born.
What Is the Symbiotic Relationship between Fig Wasps & Figs?
Just as the fig wasp depends on the fig tree to complete its life cycle, the fig tree is counting on the wasp. But with the flowers hidden inside the figs, how does the pollen ever get to the flower? It turns out that the wasps bring the pollen that triggers the growth of fig fruits. The mother wasp carries pollen from the flowers in her birth fig to the flowers in the new fig.
The lifecycles of figs and fig wasps are studied as a way of understanding the evolution of mutualism. Fifty years ago, in the late s, when the fig-wasp mutualism began to be elucidated, it was divided into five biologically based developmental phases A, B, C, D and E describing how the ripening fig becomes attractive to female wasps, which enter the inflorescence to lay their eggs, and how a new generation of fertilized female wasps eventually emerges from the fig to renew the cycle.
Half a century after the initial description of this development cycle, Brazilian biologist Luciano Palmieri Rocha has proposed a new phase, which he calls the F phase; this phase encompasses the ecological interactions that occur after the wasps leave, involving the ripe figs that fall and rot on the ground.
Can Figs Exist Without Wasps? | Ask A Biologist
The study was published in the journal Acta Oecologica as part of a special volume compiled to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the original discovery of the fig-wasp mutualism.
This is why fig-wasp mutualism is so interesting. The two species coexist and mutually adapt to survive. This mutualism is not confined to the interaction between the species that produces edible figs Ficus carica, the common fig and its specific pollinators, fig wasps of the species Blastophaga psenes. The genus Ficus comprises more than species, and for each, there is a species of pollinating agaonid wasp.
The mutualism is ancient, Palmieri explained. The oldest fossils of fig wasps date from 34 million years ago.
They closely resembled the species alive today, indicating that the symbiotic relationship evolved early and has not changed fundamentally since then. Molecular evidence shows that the relationship existed 65 million years ago, suggesting that it might be even older, perhaps going back to the age of dinosaurs.
The fig-wasp lifecycle begins when the female wasp enters the fig. The flowers open inside it, so they need a special pollination process.
They cannot rely on wind or bees to carry their pollen. Inside the fig, there are female and male flowers that develop at different times. The A phase occurs when the female flowers are not yet mature.
They soon mature and are ready to be fertilized. They become receptive to the wasps and release a scent made up of a huge amount of volatile compounds, triggering the B phase.
Each fig receptacle is not entirely closed but has a small hole called an ostiole, through which the female wasp penetrates its interior. As it does so, it loses its wings and its antennae are broken, so that it cannot get out again. It lays its eggs and dies. Synchronized actions Once inside the fig, the female wasp lays eggs in many of the flowers but not all. At the same time, it fertilizes the flowers with pollen stored in a pouch on the underside of its thorax.
The flowers on which the eggs are laid now undergo a transformation to become hardened structures call galls. Now begins the C phase, which lasts two to three months. The flowers that receive pollen but no eggs develop into seeds. Flowers that receive eggs and harden into galls become nurseries with food and shelter for wasp larvae. The D phase occurs at the end of larval incubation. This is also when the male flowers start to mature, opening up to expose pollen containers known as anthers.
The male penetrates the female with a telescopic penis and fertilizes the female inside the gall. Once they have mated in this way, the males use their mandibles to bite through the fig wall.
They then go out through the hole, fall to the ground and die.
Leaving the receptacle through the hole made by their brothers, the fertilized females fly away in search of other fig trees, and the cycle begins again. The E phase consists of seed dispersal. The figs are eaten by monkeys, rodents, bats, peccaries and many other animals.
Almost all forest-dwelling vertebrates feed on figs as part of their diet.
Fig wasp | insect | posavski-obzor.info
F phase Palmieri has now proposed a new phase in addition to the five phases of the classic fig-wasp lifecycle, which has been studied for 50 years. They manage to insert their eggs into figs without performing the biological role of pollination.
These figs were discarded and left out of the research. In some cases, larvae that were almost the same size as the fig had eaten almost its entire contents.