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of Peking on Soviet-Chinese relations to this day make this contribution to Asian studies of . Mars original impetus: the large cycle ofpopular tales and songs about Ivan the Terrible. such as the recognition, in the persons of Boris and Gleb, of a new type of saint, Anita Dorczak, University of Alberta. Edward . Oct 20, I'm hoping they aren't successful and that Drew's cross connection with the demo .. Gleb I'm one of the people who liked his work with Anita Rani on Strictly, and some of It contains his poems as well – oh this is too much!. In: Culture and Society in Nigeria: Traditions, Gender Relation and Political Economy. Abimbola Adesoji: Of Orality and History: Songs, Royalty, and Traditional Agency in Mao Wang, Lars Rebohle, Roman Boettger, Inga Anita Fischer, Lion Augel, M Oehme Host: Dr. Gleb V. Kubarev Russian Academy of Sciences.

But the mistake does not cease to be a mistake for all that. The times have passed when leaders were regarded as the only makers of history, while the workers and peasants were not taken into account. The destinies of nations and of states are now determined, not only by leaders, but primarily and mainly by the vast masses of the working people. The workers and the peasants, who without fuss and noise are building factories and mills, constructing mines and railways, building collective farms and state farms, creating all the values of life, feeding and clothing the whole world—they are the real heroes and the creators of the new life.

Apparently, our Bezenchuk comrades have forgotten this. I tell the village Soviet: Please, understand our situation, life is very hard, the village Soviet confiscates everything [that is harvested] and is forcing [me] out of my house. If I told all my grievances, I would run out of paper. Fond 2, Record Series 11, File 47, Pages — This poster was published the following year in The text, which refers the viewer to a published speech which, it is assumed, they have all read, is accompanied by a simple greyscale image of Stalin.

This portrait appeared on several similar informational posters of the time and shows Stalin looking directly at the viewer, as if he were speaking personally. Stalin looking earnest as he engages with the viewer The terrible irony and -perhaps- impetus for this celebratory conference and speech is the shocking famine that occurred between and in the countryside as a result of collectivisation policies.

The leadership were well aware of the extent of the famine and had received numerous secret reports, beginning inoutlining what was happening in the countryside. The Russian State Archives provide numerous now declassified examples of reports, including telegrams addressed directly to Viacheslav Molotov, that detail the impact of the famine, famine-related disease, and contain requests for permission to access grain stores to prevent starvation.

One such report from the Lower Volga region summarised the data that had been collected by March 20th, But of course, only if it was worth the effort. After graduating from the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, I asked Professor Kozolupov to refer me to a post graduate course with Rostropovich as supervisor. I wanted to dig deeper into music and, of course, I yearned to work with the great musical master.

Since he was visiting Moscow for just for a couple of days, we had our lessons every day. The Maestro would turn up at midnight and after our lesson he would ask me something like this: It is only 1 a. In six hours, you could learn not just one, but three solo pieces! That would have wasted his time, which none of us could afford. It is common knowledge among musicians that Rostropovich was a perfectionist and a workaholic and that he expected his pupils and music partners to be the same.

We stayed in the same hotel. One day, as I left the theatre after a rehearsal, I ran into Galina Pavlovna Vishnevskaya, who told me that Mstislav Leopoldovich was out shopping in the local supermarket.

After we had finished our shopping and were walking out with our shopping bags loaded with all sorts of yummy food, it suddenly started raining. This small, but very telling episode showed how much he cared about us vocalists, and I will remember this for the rest of my life. Rostropovich was a timeless man, capable of seeing into the future.

His great legacy is a fine proof of that. Probably he enjoyed his role as a magician because it made him really happy to help the underprivileged and because he chose to make it his mission. He helped many people, but he never made a show of it. He did not differentiate between people based on profession, social background, nationality or religion. Slava helped incognito and only his immediate family knew about it. He was a holy man, a rock in art and in life. People reached out to him and he responded whenever he could.

He was larger than life, a great musician and a great man! The curious thing about his character was that it was made up of two polar opposites. He was both great and humble. It would not be easy to find a person among great artists to whom both of these characteristics would apply. Usually it is one or the other. But Rostropovich was both. He was a remarkably easy going and at the same time, a very level-headed man. He was very sensitive to the tragic and to the humorous sides of life.

Rostropovich interpreted works of classical composers as brilliantly as those by modern composers. His contemporaries dedicated to him nearly of their musical pieces as a token of gratitude for his ability to empathize.

I was on tenterhooks before our first performance in London, while he adjusted my jacket in a fatherly manner, cracked jokes and told me, smiling, that he was pretty nervous too. We were given a standing ovation and after we left the stage, he took me to the dressing room, locked the door and refused to open it to the fans standing behind until he had given me a few suggestions for the next concert.

He wanted to share his thoughts on our performance first hand. In I was honored to take part in the ceremony of granting Rostropovich the status of the Honorary Citizen of Cremona. After my performance he came up to me and said that he was much impressed by my playing and suggested that I play with him as conductor at the National Auditorium in Madrid in front of Her Royal Highness Queen Sofia.

I very much wanted to play the Beethoven Violin Concerto. Rostropovich said it was one of his favorites and, as far he remembered, he conducted it last time with Yehudi Menuhin in He repeatedly asked me whether I was sure. I knew it was a great challenge, but I realized it was a unique opportunity to play this eternal piece under the baton of the great conductor. I told him I was prepared to take the risk. During the performance, I noticed several times that his eyes welled with tears.

Imagine me standing beside the musical legend and how I felt. It was probably one of the strongest emotions I have ever experienced in my artistic career. They also inspired his deeper philosophical explorations into the world of music and his willingness to pass on the knowledge he gained, to the younger generations of musical performers. In August I called Rostropovich and told him: He had lost a lot of weight, but was still full of energy and spirit.

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I played the whole concerto for him. He spoke for a long time about feeling detached from the real world and finally added: Having questioned all the basic tenets, Rostropovich lived a dozen fantastic human lives and has rewritten most of the universal laws of human existence the way he saw it.

The Maestro inspired and continues to inspire composers to create masterpieces. Sculptors erect monuments to him, schools, parks, and aircrafts are named after him I think we need to think about that before it is too late What impression did he make on you? I heard him playing the Shostakovich First Cello Concerto. It was not even live.

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I will never forget this first impression of him — that there is a lot more to this guy than meets the eye. He had a piercing gaze and I could tell that he was quite a bright guy, much beyond what would appear from his friendly demeanor and exterior. His exceptional friendliness was still very much a very important part of his personality, but only one facet I would say.

Rostropovich famously said that he never conducted instruments — he conducted people. How different were rehearsals with Rostropovich from rehearsals with other conductors? He wanted to discover what was in the score. It was very important to him to get right what a composer had written. Once he found a personal connection to the music, he wanted to communicate that not just to audiences, but also to the other musicians that he played with.

Perhaps it was easier for him to accomplish this with someone like Sviatoslav Richter, his partner on the piano when they would play recitals.

A few shorthand expressions and they were off. They would understand a passage. Many conductors, I think, are much more technically oriented in their conducting.

First, Slava had to feel the music in his soul and then he had to communicate this in some way to the orchestra.

He would lead us very much as individuals and as a collective. She was quite nervous and told Slava about it.

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As you play, you will walk hand in hand with the soul of the composer and with God. What can you tell us about his facial expressions? It was true, he would not walk very stately onto the stage. He would actually jump onto the stage. There was an electricity from that moment. It was something that Slava believed was very important.

How was it to play Shostakovich and Prokofiev with Rostropovich who was one generation away from these two composers and knew them personally? My lasting picture of Slava conducting music by Prokofiev is to see him weeping on the podium as he conducted…he would weep often when we played a piece by his friend and mentor.

Slava had, the year before, decided not to play the piece anymore because it was so physically taxing. This was after Prokofiev had passed away and Slava was remembering his friend as he conducted his music.

But it was more than that: It is very difficult now for this orchestra to play some pieces with another conductor. I still hear echoes of things that Slava found important in that music. When we played Shostakovich and Prokofiev with Slava in Russia for the people who grew up with that music, it was very effective.

All over the world, whenever Slava would conduct the Great Russian masterpieces, audiences would feel like they were listening to something very special. It even applies to Beethoven. Slava took a lot of grief from critics when his recording of five Beethoven sonatas with Sviatoslav Richter was released.

You should listen to this other recording. Everybody refers to that recording as an authentic performance. My time came around eventually. Another thing we learned from Slava: Which Russian composers did Mstislav enjoy conducting the most? There was a very special affinity with the music of Tchaikovsky. We did a lot of modern works also, but I always felt that Slava, whenever he was doing something by Shostakovich or Prokofiev, he was transported back to another time in his life.

He would see and remember conversations with them. When he told us stories about their lives, it made the music come to life more for us, too.

And for Slava it was maybe less of a challenge, but for the rest of us it presented a huge challenge because the pieces that were written for him are monuments not only in the repertoire, but of technical difficulty. How did Mstislav Rostropovich influence the world of classical music? It is hard to exaggerate what he did for our repertoire with Shostakovich, Prokofiev, and Benjamin Britten.

He not only convinced these composers through the beauty of his playing to write works for solo cello, but he also, in a way, blackmailed some of them. I play it, you write it. Sometimes other composers, maybe not quite as talented, will write a piece for me, then I have to bring more of myself to the performance. He said there were some compositions that he would only learn the notes for and play, and generally in these cases, he would be talking about Prokofiev, Shostakovich, and Britten.

As a conductor he also inspired others. That also encouraged composers to write music for him. Beyond that there was his humanism. It was his desire to help people, vulnerable people, or people in need through music. He thought that wherever there was a problem, he could bring his orchestra or cello and find a way out.

He saw music as a solution to things that music could not solve, but for him music was his solution. Slava would end up getting to the orchestration class early and he had a habit of putting his cello case under the piano where Shostakovich would be sitting, and then to take his seat. Take your cello out because I have something I would like you to play for me.

I just needed to know if it could be played. That is a whole page of cello playing what we call artificial harmonics or stopped harmonics. Very difficult to play cleanly. These interactions gave me a glimpse into the very creative world of Rostropovich.

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In when he became seriously ill, he was being treated in Paris, France, and he asked for me. After the private confession, I administered to him holy unction and holy communion with his whole family gathered around his bed.

Even though Slava was grievously ill, his spirit was still very much evident. He was always bubbling over with life. What struck me is that notwithstanding his serious condition, he mustered the strength to work on a collection of his best performances for a large CD set. Soon after that, he went back to Russia and he was able to mobilize When did you meet Mstislav Rostropovich for the first time? So we came to Washington the same year, and inSlava performed a few world premiere works that were commissioned by the National Symphony Orchestra.

One was Timbre, espace, mouvemant by the French composer Henri Dutilleux, the other was a work by Olivier Messiaen, another French composer, a very religious man who was into bird sounds. Slava had a very limited knowledge of French. Through Nadia Efremov, who happened to be his secretary and my parishioner of long standing, he invited my wife, born in France and a native French speaker, to translate for him.

Slava took a great liking to my wife, to my matushka, and we were invited to the premieres of both composers. After the performances, we went backstage, as we always did from then on: We became close friends. We were still in the midst of building the church and Slava enjoyed coming by and climbing the scaffolding to talk to the builder and ask about the progress of his work.

Slava was himself an avid builder and loved to create things. He took a very big liking to our church. He even sponsored several events. He gave us recordings, LPs, and then CDs of his works, and we would auction them off, raise money for the church, and when the time came to build the belfry, the bell tower, Slava decided that he would donate the bells.

Of course, the girls immediately sent us a generous donation, and now we have all eight bells that were gifted to the parish by the Rostropovich family. Soon after that he passed away.

I very much wanted to attend his funeral, but I came down with a heart condition. Thank God, 40 days after his passing, I was able to serve a memorial service with his family at his grave site at Novodevichy Convent cemetery.

Was he a devout man? How important was spirituality to him? I began noticing that the prayer book was becoming worn, the pages were coming off the binding, and the cover was wearing thin. What that showed me is, of course, that he used the prayer book on a daily basis. When Slava died, the prayer book became special to the family. These details speak a lot about his inner life, but he did not particularly like to flaunt his faith.

I have a parish member, an American woman who played the viola in the National Symphony Orchestra under Slava. She witnessed to me and others that she converted to Orthodoxy because Slava inspired her.

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Before going on stage, even before rehearsals, Slava would cross himself and say a prayer. This made such a deep impression on her that she began wondering about his faith, about his church, so she came, began seeking, and finally, converted and became a member of our parish and our English-language choir. Did you attend his concerts? What impression did they leave on you? I think Slava was one of the foremost interpreters of these two composers. Of course, Slava knew Shostakovich very well and would often tell us stories about their relationship.

But he always enjoyed commissioning works for the National Symphony from young and rising composers whom he tried his best to help. I also remember the Requiem by Artyomov, whom Slava supported very much. Then, after the backstage encounter, sometimes he would take us home to his apartment. In his youth he was evacuated to Central Asia during the war, where food was scarce.

He did not waste food and before leaving Washington for a trip would always ask us to take home whatever was left in his refrigerator. We became the recipients of a lot of good food because people bought him gifts, fine chocolates, and caviar. He never wanted this food to go to waste. You visited Alexander Solzhenitsyn with Mstislav Rostropovich. What was this meeting about? What imprint did it leave on you? It was a four-day trip. Slava fiercely loved freedom and fiercely loved his country.

May his memory be eternal! Russian Orthodox Cathedral of St. During our trip to Cavendish, Vermont, a little town is in the middle of nowhere, at one point we got lost. We knew that we were some place near Cavendish, and we drove up to a farmer and we asked: Perhaps the Solzhenitsyn family directed him to say that to protect their privacy?

I came out of the car; I was dressed as a priest and told him that Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and his wife were expecting us. He finally gave us directions. Before we arrived at the Solzhenitsyn residence, we stopped at a local general store and noticed a prominently displayed a sign behind the counter: Although people wrote that Solzhenitsyn lived like a hermit, that he had electrified fences around his property, and that you would be electrocuted if you come too close, it turned out to be nonsense.

We found a flimsy gate that would open with the touch of a finger. We drove up to the house, and of course, the family members came out to meet us. He was at his little writing workshop — dacha down near the pond working.

After a while Slava went down to see Solzhenitsyn and spent a short time together at the house near the pond. Slava did not want to distract Aleksandr Isaevich from his work and his thought process. This is a unique place in the United States. Fennimore Cooper country, the Mohawk Valley, where Cooper wrote The Last of the Mohicans, and home to a wonderful, picturesque Russian monastery founded in Slava instantaneously took a love to this holy place.

He met with the old monks and quickly befriended them. They were happy to meet him, and just before we were going to leave for the Solzhenitsyns in Vermont, Fr. Hilarion, one of monks later he became Metropolitan and head of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia informed me in passing that there is a mansion that was put up for sale next to the monastery on acres of land. It was the Gelston Castle, a property which formerly belonged to the Roosevelt family. The mansion itself was in half-ruins, but Slava bought it, called the property Galina in honor of his wife, and the new house was, of course, absolutely gorgeous, overlooking the Mohawk Valley.

He filled the house with Russian antique furniture, paintings, and icons. He was very gracious. We had a wonderful dinner with Solzhenitsyn and his family. He was very engaging in conversation, but at the same time, although he followed the conversation and would comment on it, I could tell that his mind was somewhere else. He was engrossed in his work.

After dinner, he showed us his office, two offices. He had one in the main building, and then another one, of course, his Holy of Holies down near the pond. He had extensive contacts with the Hoover Institution and the Library of Congress. They would send him books and microfilms that he requested and he showed Slava and us how he worked with these little pieces of paper everywhere, little piles of paper with facts, with thoughts written down and strewed all over the table.

He also showed us his beautiful chapel where the local priest would come and do a service from time to time. We did a prayer service there for him and everybody gathered.

It was a pleasure to see both Aleksandr Isaevich and Slava together. Slava and Galina were forced into exile because of their involvement with Solzhenitsyn. John the Baptist in DC? Mstislav Rostropovich during the blessing of the Roosevelt house he had bought in Jordanville. At the time of the Great Patriotic War this city, once famous for its merchant fairs, became the base for musicians, writers, and actors evacuated from Leningrad and Moscow. In that city, this legendary music was performed for the first time in under conductor Samuil Samosud.

On the occasion of the sixtieth anniversary of the end of the World War II, it was performed by the Mariinsky Symphony Orchestra conducted by Valery Gergiev and broadcast live to all continents.

Rostropovich first visited this city in He also played there during his last tour down the Volga River inbefore he left the Soviet Union. Although the reviews of the time praised Rostropovich, his name had already become a taboo.

Twenty three years later Rostropovich was granted an amnesty; he returned to Russia and opened the New Philharmonic season of in Samara with the same Variations on a Rococo Theme that he had previously played at his farewell concert. Rostropovich also travelled to Samara in on board the steamer Mikhail Frunze with soloists from the Galina Vishnevskaya Opera Center and young beneficiaries of the Rostropovich Fund.

Having previously included Samara several times in his tours during the Moscow Easter Festival, Valery Gergiev launched the Samara Festival with a series of educational concerts based on principles fundamental to Russian regions and favoured by Rostropovich himself. Since the very first day of the festival, its programs included musical pieces virtually unknown to the Samara audiences.

By the way, Rostropovich staged the world premiere of this opera in in Stockholm. The schedule for the festival was promptly decided — three concerts in two days, one being a charity concert.

When we met, I suggested we organize a festival in memory of Mstislav Rostropovich, which she approved. I made it clear at the time that the festival was not going to be held in Moscow because Rostropovich refused to perform in Moscow after his return to Russia, so I chose Samara, a city he loved. The young solo pianists were winners of the Tchaikovsky International Competitions: Its itinerary was the following: Beijing, Vladivostok, Khanty- Mansiysk, and Samara.

Music of modern composers, to which Rostropovich always attached great importance, became a permanent feature in the festival concert programs. Can you tell us your thoughts about the legacy of Rostropovich? I heard him many times in concert, and those occasions were some of my ultimate live music experiences. I also conducted him and we had a wonderful personal relationship. They grow closer to each other, and make music as friends. And cultural exchange is very important.

That is very interesting for the orchestra and for me — but it is also interesting for the people in the countries we visit.

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How do you envision the impact of this tour, which is the first time the NSO has returned to Russia since ? And I hope our two programs will be appealing to Russian audiences. They are meant as a tribute to Rostropovich, and feature two major works of Russian literature.

So that is another tribute to him.