Principles address how students think and learn, including perceptions positive student-teacher relationships, improve overall student outcomes and. learner, requires involvement with feelings, thoughts, memory of past experiences and physical activity, it is . However, instruction speeds this learning process by teaching the relationships of Pointing out the relationships as they occur, providing Learning may be accomplished at any of several levels. The lowest. through use of bodily sensations; learning is accomplished through physical movement Interpersonal: emphasizes communication and interpersonal relationships, Intrapersonal: related to inner thought processes, such as reflection and.
In the medial frontal cortex, a region clearly associated with higher cognitive functions, the process is more protracted: The selection process, which corresponds conceptually to the main organization of patterns, continues during the next 4—5 years and ends around early adolescence.
This lack of synchrony among cortical regions may also occur upon individual cortical neurons where different inputs may mature at different rates see Juraska,on animal studies. After the cycle of synapse overproduction and selection has run its course, additional changes occur in the brain. They appear to include both the modification of existing synapses and the addition of entirely new synapses to the brain. Research evidence described in the next section suggests that activity in the nervous system associated with learning experiences somehow causes nerve cells to create new synapses.
Unlike the process of synapse overproduction and loss, synapse addition and modification are lifelong processes, driven by experience. This process is probably not the only way that information is stored in the brain, but it is a very important way that provides insight into how people learn. Animals raised in complex environments have a greater volume of capillaries per nerve cell—and therefore a greater supply of blood to the brain—than the caged animals, regardless of whether the caged animal lived alone or with companions Black et al.
Capillaries are the tiny blood vessels that supply oxygen and other nutrients to the brain.
Observational learning - Wikipedia
Using astrocytes cells that support neuron functioning by providing nutrients and removing waste as the index, there are higher amounts of astrocyte per neuron in the complex-environment animals than in the caged groups. Overall, these studies depict an orchestrated pattern of increased capacity in the brain that depends on experience. Other studies of animals show other changes in the brain through learning; see Box 5. The weight and thickness of the cerebral cortex can be measurably altered in rats that are reared from weaning, or placed as adults, in a large cage enriched by the presence both of a changing set of objects for play and exploration and of other rats to induce play and exploration Rosenzweig and Bennett, These animals also perform better on a variety of problem-solving tasks than rats reared in standard laboratory cages.
Interestingly, both the interactive presence of a social group and direct physical contact with the environment are important factors: Thus, the gross structure of the cerebral cortex was altered both by exposure to opportunities for learning and by learning in a social context. Are the changes in the brain due to actual learning or to variations in aggregate levels of neural activity?
Animals in a complex environment not only learn from experiences, but they also run, play, and exercise, which activates the brain. The question is whether activation alone can produce brain changes without the subjects actually learning anything, just as activation of muscles by exercise can cause them to grow. To answer this question, a group of animals that learned challenging motor skills but had relatively little brain activity was compared with groups that had high levels of brain activity but did relatively little learning Black et al.
There were four groups in all. What happened to the volume of blood vessels and number of synapses per neuron in the rats? Both the mandatory exercisers and the voluntary exercisers showed higher densities of blood vessels than either the cage potato rats or the acrobats, who learned skills that did not involve significant Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: The objects are changed and rearranged each day, and during the changing time, the animals are put in yet another environment with another set of objects.
So, like their real-world counterparts in the sewers of New York or the fields of Kansas, these rats have a relatively rich set of experiences from which to draw information; A contrasting group of rats is placed in a more typical laboratory environment, living alone or with one or two: These two settings can help determine how experience affects the development of the normal brain and normal cognitive structures, and one can also see what happens when animals are deprived of critical experiences.
After living in the complex or impoverished environments for a period from weaning to rat adolescence, the two groups of animals were subjected to a learning experience. The rats that had grown up in the complex environment made fewer errors at the outset than the other rats; they also learned more quickly not to make any errors at all.
In this sense, they were smarter than their more deprived counterparts. And with positive rewards, they performed better on complex tasks than the animals raised in individual cages. It is clear that when animals learn, they add new connections to the wiring of their brains—a phenomenon not limited to early development see, e. But when the number of synapses per nerve cell was measured, the acrobats were the standout group.
Learning adds synapses; exercise does not. Thus, different kinds of experience condition the brain in different ways. Synapse formation and blood vessel formation vascularization are two important forms of brain adaptation, but they are driven by different physiological mechanisms and by different behavioral events. Localized Changes Learning specific tasks brings about localized changes in the areas of the brain appropriate to the task.
When they learned the maze with one eye blocked with an opaque contact lens, only the brain regions connected to the open eye were altered Chang and Greenough, When they learned a set of complex motor skills, structural changes occurred in the motor region of the cerebral cortex and in the cerebellum, a hindbrain structure that coordinates motor activity Black et al.
These changes in brain structure underlie changes in the functional organization of the brain. That is, learning imposes new patterns of organization on the brain, and this phenomenon has been confirmed by electro-physiological recordings of the activity of nerve cells Beaulieu and Cynader, Studies of brain development provide a model of the learning process at a cellular level: The neuroscientist does not address these questions.
Answering them is the job of cognitive scientists, education researchers, and others who study the effects of experiences on human behavior and human potential. Several examples illustrate how instruction in specific kinds of information can influence natural development processes.
This section discusses a case involving language development. Language and Brain Development Brain development is often timed to take advantage of particular experiences, such that information from the environment helps to organize the brain. The development of language in humans is an example of a natural process that is guided by a timetable with certain limiting conditions. A phoneme is defined as the smallest meaningful unit of speech sound.
Very young children discriminate many more phonemic boundaries than adults, but they lose their discriminatory powers when certain boundaries are not supported by experience with spoken language Kuhl, It is not known whether synapse overproduction and elimination underlies this process, but it certainly seems plausible. The process of synapse elimination occurs relatively slowly in the cerebral cortical regions that are involved in aspects of language and other higher cognitive functions Huttenlocher and Dabholkar, Different brain systems appear to develop according to different time frames, driven in part by experience and in part by intrinsic forces.
But, as noted above, learning continues to affect the structure of the brain long after synapse overproduction and loss are completed. There may be other changes in the brain involved in the encoding of learning, but most scientists agree that synapse addition and modification are the ones that are most certain. Examples of Effects of Instruction on Brain Development Detailed knowledge of the brain processes that underlie language has emerged in recent years. For example, there appear to be separate brain areas that specialize in subtasks such as hearing words spoken language of othersseeing words readingspeaking words speechand generating words thinking with language.
Whether these patterns of brain organization for oral, written, and listening skills require separate exercises to promote the component skills of language and literacy remains to be determined.
If these closely related skills have somewhat independent brain representation, then coordinated practice of skills may be a better way to encourage learners to move seamlessly among speaking, writing, and listening.
Language provides a particularly striking example of how instructional processes may contribute to organizing brain functions.
The example is interesting because language processes are usually more closely associated with the left side of the brain. As the following discussion points out, specific kinds of experiences can contribute to other areas of the brain taking over some of the language functions. For example, deaf people who learn a sign language are learning to communicate using the visual system in place of the auditory system.
Manual sign languages have grammatical structures, with affixes and morphology, but they are not translations of spoken languages.
The perception of sign language depends on parallel visual perception of shape, relative spatial location, and movement of the hands—a very different type of perception than the auditory perception of spoken language Bellugi, In the nervous system of a hearing person, auditory system pathways appear to be closely connected to the brain regions that process the features of spoken language, while visual pathways appear to go through several stages of processing before features of written language are extracted Blakemore, ; Friedman and Cocking, When a deaf individual learns to communicate with manual signs, different nervous system processes have replaced the ones normally used for language—a significant achievement.
Neuroscientists have investigated how the visual-spatial and language processing areas each come together in a different hemisphere of the brain, while developing certain new functions as a result of the visual language experiences. In the brains of all deaf people, some cortical areas that normally process auditory information become organized to process visual information.
Yet there are also demonstrable differences among the brains of deaf people who use sign language and deaf people who do not use sign language, presumably because they have had different language experiences Neville, Among other things, major differences exist in the electrical activities of the brains of deaf individuals who use sign language and those who do not know sign language Friedman and Cocking, ; Neville, Also, there are similarities between sign language users with normal hearing and sign language users who are deaf that result from their common experiences of engaging in language activities.
In other words, specific types of instruction can modify the brain, enabling it to use alternative sensory input to accomplish adaptive functions, in this case, communication. Another demonstration that the human brain can be functionally reorganized by instruction comes from research on individuals who have suffered strokes or had portions of the brain removed Bach-y-Rita,; Crill and Raichle, Since spontaneous recovery is generally unlikely, the best way to help these individuals regain their lost functions is to provide them with instruction and long periods of practice.
Although this kind of learning typically takes a long time, it can lead to partial or total recovery of functions when based on sound principles of instruction. Studies of animals with similar impairments have clearly shown the formation of new brain connections and other adjustments, not unlike those that occur when adults learn e.
Thus, guided learning and learning from individual experiences both play important roles in the functional reorganization of the brain. Most of the research advances in memory that help scientists understand learning come from two major groups of studies: Memory is neither a single entity nor a phenomenon that occurs in a single area of the brain. There are two basic memory processes: Different features of learning contribute to the durability or fragility of memory.
The superiority effect of pictures is also true if words and pictures are combined during learning Roediger, Obviously, this finding has direct relevance for improving the long-term learning of certain kinds of information. Research has also indicated that the mind is not just a passive recorder of events, rather, it is actively at work both in storing and in recalling information.
There is research demonstrating that when a series of events are presented in a random sequence, people reorder them into sequences that make sense when they try to recall them Lichtenstein and Brewer, In one example Roediger,people are first given lists of words: The finding illustrates the active mind at work using inferencing processes to relate events.
Thus, it is a feature of learning that memory processes make relational links to other information. In view of the fact that experience alters brain structures and that spe- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: For example, when children are asked if a false event has ever occurred as verified by their parentsthey will correctly say that it never happened to them Ceci, However, after repeated discussions around the same false events spread over time, the children begin to identify these false events as true occurrences.
Magnetic resonance imaging also shows that the same brain areas are activated during questions and answers about both true and false events. This may explain why false memories can seem so compelling to the individual reporting the events. In sum, classes of words, pictures, and other categories of information that involve complex cognitive processing on a repeated basis activate the brain. Activation sets into motion the events that are encoded as part of long-term memory.
Memory processes treat both true and false memory events similarly and, as shown by imaging technologies, activate the same brain regions, regardless of the validity of what is being remembered.
These points about memory are important for understanding learning and can explain a good deal about why experiences are remembered well or poorly. Particularly important is the finding that the mind imposes structure on the information available from experience. This parallels descriptions of the organization of information in skilled performance discussed in Chapter 3: From the perspective of teaching, it again suggests the importance of an appropriate overall framework within which learning occurs most efficiently and effectively see evidence discussed in Chapters 3 and 4.
Observers cannot learn unless they pay attention to what's happening around them.
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This process is influenced by characteristics of the model, such as how much one likes or identifies with the model, and by characteristics of the observer, such as the observer's expectations or level of emotional arousal. Observers must not only recognize the observed behavior but also remember it at some later time. This process depends on the observer's ability to code or structure the information in an easily remembered form or to mentally or physically rehearse the model's actions.
In many cases the observer possesses the necessary responses. But sometimes, reproducing the model's actions may involve skills the observer has not yet acquired. It is one thing to carefully watch a circus juggler, but it is quite another to go home and repeat those acts. The observer must have motivation to recreate the observed behavior. Bandura clearly distinguishes between learning and performance. Unless motivated, a person does not produce learned behavior.
Unconscious learning processes: mental integration of verbal and pictorial instructional materials
This motivation can come from external reinforcement, such as the experimenter's promise of reward in some of Bandura's studies, or the bribe of a parent. Or it can come from vicarious reinforcement, based on the observation that models are rewarded. High-status models can affect performance through motivation. For example, girls aged 11 to 14 performed better on a motor performance task when they thought it was demonstrated by a high-status cheerleader than by a low-status model.
Observational learning leads to a change in an individual's behavior along three dimensions: An individual thinks about a situation in a different way and may have incentive to react to it. The change is a result of a person's direct experiences as opposed to being in-born. For the most part, the change an individual has made is permanent.
According to Bandura's social cognitive learning theory, observational learning can affect behavior in many ways, with both positive and negative consequences. It can teach completely new behaviors, for one.
It can also increase or decrease the frequency of behaviors that have previously been learned. Observational learning can even encourage behaviors that were previously forbidden for example, the violent behavior towards the Bobo doll that children imitated in Albert Bandura's study.
Observational learning can also influence behaviors that are similar to, but not identical to, the ones being modeled. For example, seeing a model excel at playing the piano may motivate an observer to play the saxophone.
Age difference[ edit ] Albert Bandura stressed that developing children learn from different social models, meaning that no two children are exposed to exactly the same modeling influence.
From infancy to adolescencethey are exposed to various social models. A study found that a toddlers' previous social familiarity with a model was not always necessary for learning and that they were also able to learn from observing a stranger demonstrating or modeling a new action to another stranger.
However a number of studies now report that infants as young as seven days can imitate simple facial expressions. By the latter half of their first year, 9-month-old babies can imitate actions hours after they first see them. As they continue to develop, toddlers around age two can acquire important personal and social skills by imitating a social model. Deferred imitation is an important developmental milestone in a two-year-old, in which children not only construct symbolic representations, but can also remember information.
Instead, they can verbally describe the model's behavior. As age increases, age-related observational learning motor skills may decrease in athletes and golfers. A study of month-old infants found that they can learn causal relations from observing human interventions. They also learn by observing normal actions not created by intentional human action.
Psychologists have been particularly interested in the form of observational learning known as imitation and in how to distinguish imitation from other processes.
- Observational learning
- Unconscious learning processes: mental integration of verbal and pictorial instructional materials
To successfully make this distinction, one must separate the degree to which behavioral similarity results from a predisposed behaviorb increased motivation resulting from the presence of another animal, c attention drawn to a place or object, d learning about the way the environment works, as distinguished from what we think of as e imitation the copying of the demonstrated behavior.
For example, the learner may observe an unwanted behavior and the subsequent consequences, and thus learn to refrain from that behavior. For example, Riopelle found that monkeys did better with observational learning if they saw the "tutor" monkey make a mistake before making the right choice.
John Dewey describes an important distinction between two different forms of imitation: This kind of imitation is often observed in animals. Imitation with a purpose utilizes the imitative act as a means to accomplish something more significant. Whereas the more passive form of imitation as an end has been documented in some European American communities, the other kind of more active, purposeful imitation has been documented in other communities around the world.
Observation may take on a more active form in children's learning in multiple Indigenous American communities. Ethnographic anthropological studies in Yucatec Mayan and Quechua Peruvian communities provide evidence that the home or community-centered economic systems of these cultures allow children to witness first-hand, activities that are meaningful to their own livelihoods and the overall well-being of the community.
This does not mean that they have to observe the activities even though they are present. The children often make an active decision to stay in attendance while a community activity is taking place to observe and learn. It goes far beyond learning mundane tasks through rote imitation; it is central to children's gradual transformation into informed members of their communities' unique practices. There was also a study, done with children, that concluded that Imitated behavior can be recalled and used in another situation or the same.
Apprentices gain their skills in part through working with masters in their profession and through observing and evaluating the work of their fellow apprentices. Exposure- Individuals learn about their environment with a close proximity to other individuals that have more experience. For example, a young dolphin learning the location of a plethora of fish by staying near its mother.
Stimulus enhancement — Individuals become interested in an object from watching others interact with it. For example, a young killer whale might become interested in playing with a sea lion pup after watching other whales toss the sea lion pup around. After playing with the pup, the killer whale may develop foraging behaviors appropriate to such prey.
In this case, the killer whale did not learn to prey on sea lions by observing other whales do so, but rather the killer whale became intrigued after observing other whales play with the pup. After the killer whale became interested, then its interactions with the sea lion resulted in behaviors that provoked future foraging efforts.
Goal emulation — Individuals are enticed by the end result of an observed behavior and attempt the same outcome but with a different method. For example, Haggerty devised an experiment in which a monkey climbed up the side of a cage, stuck its arm into a wooden chute, and pulled a rope in the chute to release food. Another monkey was provided an opportunity to obtain the food after watching a monkey go through this process on four separate occasions. The monkey performed a different method and finally succeeded after trial and error.
Although individuals go through four different stages for observational learning: One of the most important ongoing stages for observational learning, especially among children, is motivation and positive reinforcement [ citation needed ].
Performance is enhanced when children are positively instructed on how they can improve a situation and where children actively participate alongside a more skilled person. Examples of this are scaffolding and guided participation.
Scaffolding refers to an expert responding contingently to a novice so the novice gradually increases their understanding of a problem. Guided participation refers to an expert actively engaging in a situation with a novice so the novice participates with or observes the adult to understand how to resolve a problem.
Cultural variation is not restricted only to ethnicity and nationality, but rather, extends to the specific practices within communities. In learning by observation, children use observation to learn without verbal requests for further information, or without direct instruction. For example, children from Mexican heritage families tend to learn and make better use of information observed during classroom demonstration than children of European heritage. They instead participate in lessons and other exercises in special settings such as school.
Another example is seen in the immersion of children in some Indigenous communities of the Americas into the adult world and the effects it has on observational learning and the ability to complete multiple tasks simultaneously.
In doing so they learn to value observation and the skill-building it affords them because of the value it holds within their community. The classroom setting is one significant example, and it functions differently for Indigenous communities compared to what is commonly present in Western schooling. The emphasis of keen observation in favor of supporting participation in ongoing activities strives to aid children to learn the important tools and ways of their community. Although learning in the Indigenous American communities is not always the central focus when participating in an activity,  studies have shown that attention in intentional observation differs from accidental observation.
This means that when they have the intention of participating in an event, their attention is more focused on the details, compared to when they are accidentally observing. Observational learning can be an active process in many Indigenous American communities. The learner must take initiative to attend to activities going on around them. Children in these communities also take initiative to contribute their knowledge in ways that will benefit their community.
For example, in many Indigenous American cultures, children perform household chores without being instructed to do so by adults.