Paradise Lost - Wikipedia
Therefore, God wants us to be ourselves and express our individuality, but according to Emerson, the best place for us to be able to do this is in Nature rather. Most people believed in Hell as a very real place, and that the Devil was a specific person. Queen Elizabeth I's father, Henry VIII, broke away from the Catholic. God was so pleased with Abraham that he said, "I will bless them that bless him This pleased God and sealed the relationship between Abraham and God.
The problem lay in the difficulty of understanding Jesus as truly human. That was an issue for Origen c. Many of the participants in the controversies surrounding the divinity and humanity of Jesus came from the eastern Mediterranean. They wrote in Greek and employed the concepts and vocabulary of Greek philosophy.
Most Western theologians, meanwhile, were preoccupied with other issues, though St. Augustine discussed the nature of Jesus in his magisterial work On the Trinity. The question in that bewildering diversity of positions and arguments—which, nonetheless, had at its core the effort to safeguard both the unity of Jesus with God and his separateness from God—is whether the debates led to a logical conclusion in the decisions rendered at the great ecumenical councils of the 4th and 5th centuries.
Traditional historiography answered that question in the affirmativemaintaining that the apostolic faith was expressed in the resolution of the Trinitarian-Christological controversies through the canons of the Council of Nicaeawhich provided the orthodox definition of the relationship of God the Father and God the Son, and the formula of Chalcedonwhich established orthodox teaching on the nature of Christ.
According to that view, mainstream Christianity battled deviations from the implicit and explicit apostolic faith. The alternative perspective, presently held widely by scholars, sees the historical development of Christology in terms of a rich multiplicity of viewpoints, each with its own persuasiveness and biblical grounding.
That perspective notes the serendipity of the course of the historical discussion and the arbitrariness of its resolution at both Nicaea and Chalcedon. Moreover, though the formulations of Nicaea and Chalcedon subsequently served to determine the parameters of orthodoxy and heresythey were never universally accepted by all branches of Christendom, either at the time or afterward.
It is not possible, therefore, to speak of a universal acceptance of classic Christology; rather, classic Christology was normative only in the Western church.
The Arian controversy The lingering disagreements about which Christological model was to be considered normative burst into the open in the early 4th century in what became known as the Arian controversy, possibly the most-intense and most-consequential theological dispute in early Christianity.
The two protagonists, Arius c. Both were from Alexandria, Arius a distinguished churchman and scholar and Athanasius a brilliant theologian. Athanasius, detail of a 12th-century mosaic; in the Palatine Chapel, Palermo, Italy.
God in Judaism - Wikipedia
His basic notion was that the Son came into being through the will of the Father; the Son, therefore, had a beginning. Although the Son was before all eternity, he was not eternal, and Father and Son were not of the same essence.
In Jesus, who suffered pain and wept, the logos became human. The weakness of his view was that, precisely because Jesus was capable of suffering as a human, it was difficult to understand how he could be fully divine and thus effect the redemption of humankind. According to Athanasius, God had to become human so that humans could become divine. That led him to conclude that the divine nature in Jesus was identical to that of the Father and that Father and Son have the same substance.
The controversy did more than severely agitate and bitterly divide the Christian community; it also threatened the political stability of the Roman Empire. Eager for a resolution, Emperor Constantine convened and presided over the Council of Nicaea, which formulated the Nicene Creedaffirming the Athanasian position. Constantine, according to his biographer Eusebius of Caesareahad sought to achieve a rapprochement between the two sides by suggesting the use of the word homoousios, which was accepted by all in attendance with the exception of Arius and two Libyan bishops.
The council rejected the opinion of those who argued, as Eusebius put it in a famous letter, that once he was not, or he was not before his generation, or he came to be out of nothing, or…he, the Son of God, is of a different hypostasis or ousia [Greek: From Nicaea to Chalcedon The decision in favour of the Athanasian view at Nicaea did not immediately end the controversy.
For more than a century the church wavered; the Council of Ariminum all but reversed Nicaea, and the emperor in Constantinople turned the Athanasian majority into a minority. Constantine himself leaned toward Arianism later in his reign, and his eventual successor, his son Constantius, was openly Arian.
One question of particular importance throughout the controversy was whether Jesus had actually suffered. Apollinaris the Younger c.
Nestorius of Antioch diedconcerned with affirming the full humanity of Jesus, asserted that he possessed two natures. Meanwhile, Emperor Theodosius — convened the Council of Constantinoplealso known as the Second Ecumenical Council, which reaffirmed the Nicene Creed and once again condemned the Arians.
Notwithstanding those efforts, much of Christendom during that period was Arian, including the Vandals in North Africathe Visigoths in Spain, and the Lombards in Italy. Although much has been written about the subject, the reasons for the eventual decline of Arianism remain elusive. Undoubtedly, however, they include the fact that the Arians were never a united front and the fact that the Athanasians, using Greek philosophy, devised cogent rational arguments to support their position.How to deepen ur relationship with God so ur not lost
For a unity of two natures took place. Lamentations is a poetic elegy, mourning over fallen Jerusalem. Job is dramatic theological dialogue. The books of the great prophets consist mainly of oral addresses in poetic form. The New Testament also consists of a variety of literary forms.
Relationship with God
Acts is historical narrative, actually a second volume following Luke. A Gospel is not a history in the ordinary sense but an arrangement of remembered acts and sayings of Jesus retold to win faith in him. There is one apocalypseRevelation a work describing the intervention of God in history.
But the largest class of New Testament writings is epistolary, consisting of the letters of Paul and other Apostles. Originally written to local groups of Christians, the letters were preserved in the New Testament and were given the status of doctrinal and ethical treatises. Influences On Western civilization The Bible brought its view of God, the universe, and mankind into all the leading Western languages and thus into the intellectual processes of Western man.
The Greek translation of the Old Testament made it accessible in the Hellenistic period c. The Bible in Latin shaped the thought and life of Western people for a thousand years. Bible translation led to the study and literary development of many languages. The Authorized Version English of King James Version and the others that preceded it caught the English language at the blooming of its first maturity.
Since the invention of printing midth centurythe Bible has become more than the translation of an ancient Oriental literature. It has not seemed a foreign book, and it has been the most available, familiar, and dependable source and arbiter of intellectual, moraland spiritual ideals in the West.
Relationship with God
Millions of modern people who do not think of themselves as religious live nevertheless with basic presuppositions that underlie the biblical literature. It would be impossible to calculate the effect of such presuppositions on the changing ideas and attitudes of Western people with regard to the nature and purpose of government, social institutions, and economic theories.
Theories and ideals usually rest on prior moral assumptions—i. In theory, the West has moved from the divine right of kings to the divinely given rights of every citizen, from slavery through serfdom to the intrinsic worth of every person, from freedom to own property to freedom for everyone from the penalties of hopeless poverty.
Though there is a wide difference between the ideal and the actual, biblical literature continues to pronounce its judgment and assert that what ought to be can still be. On the modern secular age The assumption of many people is that the Bible has lost much of its importance in a secularized world; that is implied whenever the modern period is called the post-Judeo-Christian era.
In most ways the label is appropriate. The modern period seems to be a time in which unprecedented numbers of people have discarded traditional beliefs and practices of both Judaism and Christianity.
But the influence of biblical literature neither began nor ended with doctrinal propositions or codes of behaviour. Its importance lies not merely in its overtly religious influence but also, and perhaps more decisively, in its pervasive effect on the thinking and feeling processes, the attitudes and sense of values that, whether recognized as biblical or not, still help to make people what they are.
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- God in Judaism
Sin brought the breakdown of a relationship with God, resulting in shame and judgment. No human ritual, deed, or sacrifice can provide payment or absolution for our sins. Not a single human being by his own efforts is able to measure up to the glory of God. God desires that we share that splendor, yet our sin prohibits us from experiencing the richness of such a relationship.
What God began in the past, He will accomplish and complete in the future. God considers us children of a Heavenly Father 2 Corinthians 6: When redeemed, we are again sealed into a special relationship with God.
While sin can enslave us to the point of fear, believers in Jesus are adopted, receiving the same privileges as natural-born. Christians can approach God through an intimate relationship, even calling Him Father Romans 8: God values us as precious treasures, capable of honoring Him with our bodies and spirits.