environment is viable only when humans view the life surrounding them as kin. The kin, or relatives, include all to enhance understanding of the human-nature relationship that is necessary in order to .. the complex interactions that result from this relation- . Ramamoorthy, T. P., R. Bye, A. Lot, and J. Fa, editors. ISBN (pdf) .. what unified concept of pure state of nature, an extremely primitive humanity detached from .. relationship of use and meaning is a contested issue, but this work does not have that general and editors take advantage of other sources, and for example Gourevitch lists the sources of. PDF | On Jan 1, , Jason Byrne and others published The human relationship with nature. Export this citation. Authors and Editors. Jason Antony The human relationship with nature: rights of animals and plants in the. urban context .. A longstanding intellectual and moral schism between humans and “nature”.
Thus, the specific biophilia hypothesis is not needed to retain the more general evolutionary idea of modern gaps in optimal human-environment fit. The gap in nature exposure between our early evolutionary environments and modern life is clear, and appears to be growing. For instance, children are spending less time playing in natural environments compared to previous generations Clements, ; Louv, ; England Marketing, and, in general, individuals from developed nations are spending almost all of their time indoors Evans and McCoy, ; MacKerron and Mourato, On a broader scale, for the first time in human history, more of the world's population now lives in urban instead of rural areas United Nations Population Division, This physical disconnection from the environments in which we evolved in may be having a detrimental impact on our emotional well-being as exposure to nature is associated with increased happiness Berman et al.
Beyond these trends, individuals vary along a continuum in their subjective connection to nature e. This individual difference, which will be referred to as nature connectedness, can be thought of as trait-like in that it is relatively stable across time and situations Nisbet et al. Nevertheless, one's subjective connection to nature can fluctuate e. For the purposes of this paper, nature connectedness will be primarily conceptualized as a trait-like between-person difference.
Consistent personality, attitudinal, behavioral, and well-being differences are found between those who strongly identify with and feel connected to the natural world compared to those who do not.
Individuals higher in nature connectedness tend to be more conscientious, extraverted, agreeable, and open Nisbet et al. Beyond personality traits, a greater connection to nature is also associated with more pro-environmental attitudes, a greater willingness to engage in sustainable actions, and increased concern about the negative impact of human behavior on the environment Mayer and Frantz, ; Leary et al.
Behaviorally, individuals higher in nature connectedness are more likely to spend time outdoors in nature and engage in a variety of pro-environmental behaviors e. Most relevant to this article, nature connectedness has also been correlated with emotional and psychological well-being e.
The purpose of the current research was to examine the relationship between nature connectedness and happiness in particular by conducting a meta-analysis.
The meta-analysis was completed by using correlations to examine the strength of the relationship but not necessarily if one variable causes the other.
An evolutionary history where it was apparently advantageous for our ancestors to be connected to nature and present day variability in nature connectedness appear to be contradictory ideas at first glance, but multiple explanations exist for how both can co-exist. First, similar to how variability in other personality traits can be understood as being the result of cost and benefit trade-offs for fitness Nettle,so too can nature connectedness.
For example, although conscientiousness is often thought of as a desirable and beneficial personality trait e. Relatedly, there may have been ways in which being high in nature connectedness was not evolutionarily advantageous e. Taking another perspective, although we might have an innate predisposition to connect and identify with the natural world, it may be shaped by early childhood experiences and culture.
Orr raised the idea that there may be a critical period during development where one must have positive experiences in nature in order to develop biophilic beliefs, feelings, and tendencies.
In addition, Kellert believed that biophilia could also be shaped by culture and experiences despite it being inborn. Supporting this, individuals who are higher in nature connectedness as adults recall spending more time in nature during their childhood compared to those who are not as connected to nature Tam, a.
In addition, researchers have found that some groups e. This research illustrates that developmental experiences and cultural context can have an influence on our evolved tendency to connect with nature. In sum, the biophilia hypothesis and individual differences in nature connectedness are not contradictory and can logically co-exist to examine and explain the human-nature relationship.
A variety of concepts and measures have been developed in order to assess the human-nature relationship, including commitment to nature Davis et al. Through the lens of interdependence theory Rusbult and Arriaga,Davis et al. Another clearly affective nature connectedness construct is emotional affinity toward nature, which was developed by Kals et al.
Inclusion of nature in self was developed by Schultz who adapted the Inclusion of Other in Self scale Aron et al.
With one of its items being the Inclusion of Nature in Self scale, connectivity with nature is defined by Dutcher et al. The multidimensional construct of environmental identity, which Clayton likens to other collective identities that people have, is conceptualized as a feeling of connection to the natural environment and the belief that the environment is an important part of one's self-concept.
Despite these different concepts and measures, they all appear to be assessing slightly different expressions of the same underlying construct i.
To support this, they are all highly correlated with one another and associated with other personality characteristics, measures of well-being, and environmental attitudes and behaviors in a relatively similar manner see Tam, a. For these reasons, no distinctions will be made between these concepts in this paper and nature connectedness will be used as an umbrella term for all of them. A common line of research for many in this area is the investigation of the relationship between nature connectedness and well-being e.
Environmental journalism - Wikipedia
Well-being and the path to its attainment have traditionally and typically been conceptualized in one of two ways by philosophers and psychologists Grinde, From a hedonic perspective, well-being consists of the pleasantness of an individual's experiences and is achieved through the maximization of pleasure and the satisfaction of desires Kahneman, ; Fredrickson, Subjective well-being, another term for happiness in the hedonic approach, consists of an affective component i.
Specific measures used to assess hedonic well-being include the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Watson et al. In contrast, from a eudaimonic perspective, well-being is more about following one's deeply held values and realizing one's fullest potential Waterman, ; Ryff, As an example, psychological well-being is a construct that is thought to constitute eudaimonic well-being and consists of six facets of actualization including mastery, life purpose, autonomy, self-acceptance, positive relatedness, and personal growth Ryff and Keyes, Despite the contentious history between these two perspectives, hedonic and eudaimonic well-being indicators tend to be positively correlated and can influence one another implying that they are not mutually exclusive but overlapping and distinct King et al.
Furthermore, individuals high in hedonic and eudaimonic motives tend to experience the greatest amount of overall well-being and are considered to be flourishing Huta and Ryan, ; Forgeard et al. Nonetheless, due to its more targeted definition, established assessment tools, and common usage compared to the eudaimonic approach Kashdan et al.
Although events can influence an individual's present mood state, most have only a limited long-term impact on one's happiness Steel et al.
- Environmental resource management
- The relationship between nature connectedness and happiness: a meta-analysis
In fact, subjective well-being tends to be relatively stable over time Diener and Lucas, ; Lyubomirsky et al. Relatedly, subjective well-being is associated with particular personality traits.
Similar to nature connectedness, subjective well-being is consistently positively associated with extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, but unlike nature connectedness it is also negatively correlated with neuroticism Steel et al. Lastly, subjective well-being can predict important life outcomes such as health, longevity, and disease Williams and Schneiderman, ; Lyubomirsky et al.
There are several reasons why one would expect nature connectedness to be positively associated with subjective well-being. First, being and feeling connected in general consistently predicts well-being Ryan and Deci, For instance, consider social connectedness.
The relationship between nature connectedness and happiness: a meta-analysis
A rich and fulfilling social life is a commonality found in the lives of very happy people Diener and Seligman, In his book, This Incomparable Land: Lyon attempts to use a "taxonomy of nature writing" in order to define the genre.
He suggests that his classifications, too, suffer a great deal of overlap and intergrading. In the natural history essay, "the main burden of the writing is to convey pointed instruction in the facts of nature," such as with the ramble-type nature writing of John Burroughs Lyon In the philosophical interpretation of nature, the content is similar to that of the natural history and personal experience essays, "but the mode of presentation tends to be more abstract and scholarly" Lyon The Norton Book of Nature Writing adds a few new dimensions to the genre of nature writing, including animal narratives, garden essays, farming essays, ecofeminist works, writing on environmental justice, and works advocating environmental preservation, sustainability and biological diversity.
Environmental journalism pulls from the tradition and scope of nature writing.
Popular science Science writing is writing that focuses specifically on topics of scientific study, generally translating jargon that is difficult for those outside a particular scientific field to understand into language that is easily digestible.
This genre can be narrative or informative. Not all science writing falls within the bounds of environmental communication, only science writing that takes on topics relevant to the environment.
Environmental journalism also pulls from the tradition and scope of science writing. Heritage interpretation Environmental interpretation is a particular format for the communication of relevant information. It "involves translating the technical language of a natural science or related field into terms and ideas that people who aren't scientists can readily understand. And it involves doing it in a way that's entertaining and interesting to these people" Ham 3. Environmental interpretation is pleasurable to engage an audience in the topic and inspire them to learn more about itrelevant meaningful and personal to the audience so that they have an intrinsic reason to learn more about the topicorganized easy to follow and structured so that main points are likely to be remembered and thematic the information is related to a specific, repetitious message Ham 8—The Butterfly Effect: Interconnectedness of Humans and the Natural World - Cain Landry - TEDxUMaine