Key Facts: Poverty and Poor Health | Health Poverty Action
To investigate the relationship between poverty and pre-hospital delays for Closer links between health and development agendas could. Health experts, economists and international development advocates cite the inextricable link between poor health, poverty and under-development. Global. Defining good or poor health is not a neutral element in this debate, any more . real contribution to the identification of a link between health and development.
Most reports on the correlation between AFI and poverty have come from community-based surveys, where the majority of illnesses encountered are self-limiting and minimally investigated [ 1018 ]. In contrast, patients with the most burdensome and best-characterized infections converge upon the in-patient hospital setting, where reports of morbidity and mortality are frequently compiled, but rarely disaggregated by socioeconomic status.
The multidimensional poverty index MPI was developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative OPHI with the aim of providing a validated, easily administered, and internationally applicable metric for assessing household deprivation, and steer recommendations to reduce poverty [ 20 ]. This index identifies household living standards, education, and chronic health status defined by nutritional status and exposure to child mortality as co-existing dimensions of poverty, and links its assessment parameters directly to the priorities of the Millennium Development Goals.
The United Nations Development Programme has recently adopted MPI as an international standard for assessment, tracking, and planning of progress in the global fight against poverty [ 21 ]. This investigation seeks to complement previous, community-based studies of the socioeconomic background of people with AFI in Bangladesh, by characterizing the subset of patients admitted for acute medical management [ 101122 — 24 ].
We report a survey of patients with AFI attending a large referral hospital in Bangladesh, and describe the relationship between poverty and pre-hospital delays. These Government Health Complexes GHC are intended to provide a broad range of out-patient services, and have very limited diagnostic facilities such as rapid diagnostic tests, RDTs ; most also support 30—50 in-patient beds under the supervision of a small medical and nursing team.
Secondary level services are provided by District Hospitals, with out-patient facilities, 50 to in-patient beds, and limited laboratory and radiographic capabilities.
[Relationships between health, development and poverty reduction].
Within the public sector, consultations with healthcare workers are free of charge, but fees for provision of medication and investigations, as well as inpatient care, vary. Health Complexes and District Hospitals both make direct referrals to tertiary referral hospitals such as Chittagong Medical College Hospital CMCHwhere this investigation was undertaken [ 2627 ].
The true catchment population of CMCH is difficult to define. In addition to formal referrals from public and private secondary level services, a large number of patients are admitted via the Emergency Department after attending on the informal advice of practitioners or by self-referral. Alongside public sector health facilities, the private sector delivers a large proportion of medical care at all levels, where payment for consultations, investigations, and treatment is usually out-of-pocket.
Shops and pharmacies sell over-the-counter and prescription medication, and many shopkeepers and pharmacists give informal medical advice. We define Allopathic Practitioners as those who provide allopathic healthcare advice in a private chamber, but who lack MBBS, LMF, or higher qualification or whose qualification is unknown.
Alongside Allopathic Practitioners, healers from homoeopathic, herbalist, Ayurvedic, and spiritual backgrounds also provide health advice and treatment within the private sector, and are here defined separately, as Traditional Healers [ 1022 ].
Poverty and Health
In-patient services are also present in the private sector, with numerous private hospitals, concentrated in urban centers. Participants were recruited continuously from September to September Patients were recruited from the three adult general medical wards and one general pediatric ward.
- Key Facts: Poverty and Poor Health
- Poverty and Health
Over the study period, a total of 39, patients were admitted to the adult medical wards, and 15, to the pediatric ward with all clinical presentations; the total number of patients presenting with AFI was not available.
Screening and recruitment procedures Informed, written consent was obtained from patients or legally acceptable representatives in all cases.
For adults with capacity to give consent to participate, informed, written consent was obtained from the patient directly. For children and adults without capacity to give consent, informed, written consent was obtained on behalf of the patient from the next of kin, caretakers, or guardians.
A team of six medical and pediatric resident junior doctors acted as interviewers for this survey. All interviewers were fluent speakers of Bengali and Chittagonian.
Interviewers received training in Good Clinical Practice for Research, interview techniques, and standard operating procedures for recruitment and use of the survey and anthropometric measurement tools. Health in its broadest sense is a precondition for sustainable development. Good health contributes to economic development and poverty reduction through e.
As the CMH notes, investment in health must be accompanied by investment in education, water and sanitation and agricultural improvement to achieve health outcomes and poverty reduction. Good health and its contingent development benefits are under threat from a relatively small group of diseases.
The high levels of reproductive ill health and maternal mortality can be avoided. The CMH report estimates that by around 8 million lives per year could be saved - mainly in low-income countries - by essential interventions against infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies.
Other threats to health also loom large: Premature death and ill health attributable to environmental factors are now estimated to make up no less than per cent of the total burden of disease in developing countries reference is made to the Norwegian paper on health, poverty and the environment. The main recommendation of the CMH is that the world's low- and middle-income countries, in partnership with high-income countries, should scale up the access of the world's poor to essential health services.
Cost-effective measures do exist, but they do not match the need on a global scale and they do not reach those who need them the most: Diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria account for nearly half of all child deaths globally.
Health, poverty and development
Neglected tropical diseases affect over one billion people, almost all in the poorest and most marginalised communities. You may not have heard of diseases such as leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths and trachoma, but they can cause severe pain and life-long disabilities — and mean enormous productivity losses.
However, efforts to tackle them have usually taken a back seat to the bigger killers. Which are the most deadly non-communicable illnesses worldwide? The biggest non-communicable killers are maternal and newborn deaths and deaths related to poor nutrition, cardiovascular disease and non-communicable respiratory diseases.
How do disease and infection affect economic growth? Lives lost mean reduced economic productivity as well as personal tragedy. Productivity is further slowed while people are ill or caring for others. Most of these were among young people and adults in their most productive years. In heavily affected countries billions of dollars of economic activity are lost each year as a result of illness and death from HIV, TB and malaria. This can seriously reduce economic growth in countries that are already struggling.
Malaria reduces economic growth by 1.