Education | What are some of the factors that contribute to a rise in inflation?
Inflation is the rate of increase in prices over a given period of time. to a base year is the consumer price index (CPI), and the percentage change in the CPI This relationship between the money supply and the size of the economy is called. What is inflation? Inflation is defined as a rise in the general price level. In other words, prices of many goods and services such as housing, apparel, food. Apr 16, Inflation is the increase general level of price of goods or services. Price rise simply means an increase in price of one or more commodity. else) the value of money in relation to everything else has gone down and the money is said to be.
It turns out that deflation is not desirable either. When prices are falling, consumers delay making purchases if they can, anticipating lower prices in the future.
What are some of the factors that contribute to a rise in inflation?
For the economy this means less economic activity, less income generated by producers, and lower economic growth. Japan is one country with a long period of nearly no economic growth largely because of deflation. Preventing deflation during the recent global financial crisis is one of the reasons the U. Federal Reserve and other central banks around the world kept interest rates low for a prolonged period and have instituted other policy measures to ensure financial systems have plenty of liquidity.
Most economists now believe that low, stable, and—most important—predictable inflation is good for an economy. If inflation is low and predictable, it is easier to capture it in price-adjustment contracts and interest rates, reducing its distortionary impact.
Moreover, knowing that prices will be slightly higher in the future gives consumers an incentive to make purchases sooner, which boosts economic activity. Many central bankers have made their primary policy objective maintaining low and stable inflation, a policy called inflation targeting. Long-lasting episodes of high inflation are often the result of lax monetary policy. If the money supply grows too big relative to the size of an economy, the unit value of the currency diminishes; in other words, its purchasing power falls and prices rise.
This relationship between the money supply and the size of the economy is called the quantity theory of money, and is one of the oldest hypotheses in economics. Pressures on the supply or demand side of the economy can also be inflationary. The food and fuel inflation episodes of and were such cases for the global economy—sharply rising food and fuel prices were transmitted from country to country by trade.
Poorer countries were generally hit harder than advanced economies. Conversely, demand shocks, such as a stock market rally, or expansionary policies, such as when a central bank lowers interest rates or a government raises spendingcan temporarily boost overall demand and economic growth.
Policymakers must find the right balance between boosting growth when needed without overstimulating the economy and causing inflation. Expectations also play a key role in determining inflation. The net result in an increase in output and spending and a lower price level. In figure 2 to the left, we have a demand-side shock perhaps the result of an increase in government spending. This shock shifts the AD relation outward.
Initially there is an excess demand for goods A to B evidenced by a depletion of inventories.
Given that potential output has not changed, in time this excess demand will cause the price level to increase. As prices increase, purchasing power falls and the ability to spend decreases B to C. Inflation can act as a drag on productivity as companies are forced to shift resources away from products and services to focus on profit and losses from currency inflation.
Inflation in Price Level: Meaning, Types and Causes
For instance, inflated earnings push taxpayers into higher income tax rates unless the tax brackets are indexed to inflation. With high inflation, purchasing power is redistributed from those on fixed nominal incomes, such as some pensioners whose pensions are not indexed to the price level, towards those with variable incomes whose earnings may better keep pace with the inflation.
Where fixed exchange rates are imposed, higher inflation in one economy than another will cause the first economy's exports to become more expensive and affect the balance of trade. There can also be negative impacts to trade from an increased instability in currency exchange prices caused by unpredictable inflation.
The Price Level and Inflation
Cost-push inflation High inflation can prompt employees to demand rapid wage increases, to keep up with consumer prices. In the cost-push theory of inflation, rising wages in turn can help fuel inflation. In the case of collective bargaining, wage growth will be set as a function of inflationary expectations, which will be higher when inflation is high. This can cause a wage spiral. Social unrest and revolts Inflation can lead to massive demonstrations and revolutions.
For example, inflation and in particular food inflation is considered as one of the main reasons that caused the —11 Tunisian revolution  and the Egyptian revolution according to many observers including Robert Zoellick president of the World Bank. Hyperinflation If inflation becomes too high, it can cause people to severely curtail their use of the currency, leading to an acceleration in the inflation rate.
High and accelerating inflation grossly interferes with the normal workings of the economy, hurting its ability to supply goods. Hyperinflation can lead to the abandonment of the use of the country's currency for example as in North Korea leading to the adoption of an external currency dollarization. But when prices are constantly changing due to inflation, price changes due to genuine relative price signals are difficult to distinguish from price changes due to general inflation, so agents are slow to respond to them.
The result is a loss of allocative efficiency. Shoe leather cost High inflation increases the opportunity cost of holding cash balances and can induce people to hold a greater portion of their assets in interest paying accounts. However, since cash is still needed to carry out transactions this means that more "trips to the bank" are necessary to make withdrawals, proverbially wearing out the "shoe leather" with each trip. Menu costs With high inflation, firms must change their prices often to keep up with economy-wide changes.
But often changing prices is itself a costly activity whether explicitly, as with the need to print new menus, or implicitly, as with the extra time and effort needed to change prices constantly. Positive[ edit ] Labour-market adjustments Nominal wages are slow to adjust downwards. This can lead to prolonged disequilibrium and high unemployment in the labor market. Since inflation allows real wages to fall even if nominal wages are kept constant, moderate inflation enables labor markets to reach equilibrium faster.
Mundell—Tobin effect The Nobel laureate Robert Mundell noted that moderate inflation would induce savers to substitute lending for some money holding as a means to finance future spending. That substitution would cause market clearing real interest rates to fall.