The Cold War began after World War Two. The main enemies were the United States and the Soviet Union. The Cold War got its name. In February , in Ottawa, the four major World War II Allies (the United States, United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union), as well as the two Germanys. During World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union fought together as after a trip there in , began to establish diplomatic relations with Beijing.
Army under the direction of rocket scientist Wernher von Braun, and what came to be known as the Space Race was underway. That same year, President Dwight Eisenhower signed a public order creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAa federal agency dedicated to space exploration, as well as several programs seeking to exploit the military potential of space.
Still, the Soviets were one step ahead, launching the first man into space in April Kennedy made the bold public claim that the U. Soviets, in turn, were pictured as the ultimate villains, with their massive, relentless efforts to surpass America and prove the power of the communist system.
The committee began a series of hearings designed to show that communist subversion in the United States was alive and well. In HollywoodHUAC forced hundreds of people who worked in the movie industry to renounce left-wing political beliefs and testify against one another. More than people lost their jobs. Soon, other anticommunist politicians, most notably Senator Joseph McCarthyexpanded this probe to include anyone who worked in the federal government.The Cold War: Crash Course US History #37
Thousands of federal employees were investigated, fired and even prosecuted. The Cold War Abroad The fight against subversion at home mirrored a growing concern with the Soviet threat abroad. Many American officials feared this was the first step in a communist campaign to take over the world and deemed that nonintervention was not an option.
Truman sent the American military into Korea, but the war dragged to a stalemate and ended in Other international disputes followed. For once, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed on a major issue.
Both supported a United Nations resolution demanding an immediate ceasefire. The Suez crisis was a political victory for the Soviets. When the Soviet Union supported Egypt, it gained new friends in the Arab world. InCold War tensions eased a little.
A Freeze Hits US-Soviet Relations After World War Two
The meeting was very friendly. But the next year, relations got worse again. An American military plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. Eisenhower admitted that such planes had been spying on the Soviets for four years.
In a speech at the United Nations, Khrushchev got so angry that he took off his shoe and beat it on a table. John Kennedy followed Eisenhower as president in During his early days in office, Cuban exiles invaded Cuba. They wanted to oust the communist government of Fidel Castro.
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The exiles had been trained by America's Central Intelligence Agency. The United States failed to send military planes to protect them during the invasion. As a result, almost all were killed or taken prisoner. In Europe, tens of thousands of East Germans had fled to the West. East Germany's communist government decided to stop them. It built a wall separating the eastern and western parts of the city of Berlin.
Guards shot at anyone who tried to flee by climbing over. During Kennedy's second year in office, American intelligence reports discovered Soviet missiles in Cuba. The Soviet Union denied they were there.
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American photographs proved they were. The Cuban missile crisis easily could have resulted in a nuclear war.
But it ended after a week. Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles if the United States agreed not to interfere in Cuba. Some progress was made in easing Cold War tensions when Kennedy was president. Inthe two sides reached a major arms control agreement. They agreed to ban tests of nuclear weapons above ground, under water, and in space. They also established a direct telephone line between the White House and the Kremlin.
Relations between East and West also improved when Richard Nixon was president. He and Leonid Brezhnev met several times.
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They reached several arms control agreements. Under-Secretary of State Sumner Welles The most important factor in swaying the Soviets eventually to enter into an alliance with the United States was the Nazi decision to launch its invasion of the Soviet Union in June President Roosevelt responded by dispatching his trusted aide Harry Lloyd Hopkins to Moscow in order to assess the Soviet military situation.
Although the War Department had warned the President that the Soviets would not last more than six weeks, after two one-on-one meetings with Soviet Premier Josef Stalin, Hopkins urged Roosevelt to assist the Soviets. The United States entered the war as a belligerent in late and thus began coordinating directly with the Soviets, and the British, as allies.
Several issues arose during the war that threatened the alliance. The most important disagreement, however, was over the opening of a second front in the West. InRoosevelt unwisely promised the Soviets that the Allies would open the second front that autumn.