Vaccinations required for india and nepal relationship

Nepal | Travel Doctor-TMVC-TMVC

vaccinations required for india and nepal relationship

Most travelers to Nepal will need vaccinations for hepatitis A, typhoid fever, and .. infections, have recently been reported among travelers to India and Nepal. Planning a trip to India? WebMD lets you know which vaccines you'll need and why. To increase immunization coverage in Nepal, the government has invested in efforts . In subsequent years, Nepal implemented all four strategies required for polio relationship between various equity parameters and immunization coverage. done in India found an association between immunization coverage and the.

In recent years, the mass media are increasingly popular as a strategy for delivering preventive health messages [ 56 ]. Some have taken up this challenge with 'evangelical enthusiasm', without any regard for the decades of research and experience in the use of mass communication for public health education [ 78 ].

The success of the mass media in the commercial sphere is often thought to be directly applicable to influencing health behaviour, although advertising usually aims at modifying pre-existing patterns, whereas public health programmes are often concerned with changing deeply rooted attitudes and behaviours [ 7 ].

In the past, communication strategists often developed by assuming a smooth causal relationship between messages beamed, consumer attitudes and knowledge, and ultimately improved health practices [ 9 ]. A recent review by Wakefield et al. Exposure to such messages is generally passive.

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Narula [ 10 ] suggested that government communication channels should act more responsibly than private ones in regard of development support communication practices.

Government-controlled mass communication channels like, radio, television, and official interpersonal channels like block infrastructure and programme specialists have more credibility than non-government channels like press and films or friends, or relatives.

Media advocacy has become an established health promotion strategy, partly due to the influence of Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion [ 11 ]. More recently the media have also played a role in raising doubts about immunisation. Most famously through the hype around the now discredited research by Wakefield et al [ 15 ].

The latter research suggested that immunising children with three different virus strains at the same time could affect a child's immune system and lead to autism and bowel disorder [ 16 ]. As a result of this research and the media furore around it vaccination rates dropped in the UK, USA and Germany to name but a few countries [ 17 ]. For example; over 60 percent of Nepali women are exposed to the radio and 40 percent watch television at least once a week.

Only one in ten women read a newspaper or magazine at least once a week NDHS, Only eight percent of women were exposed to all three types of media, while 30 percent of them are not exposed at all to any of the three media [ 18 ]. In a developing country like Nepal with a low literacy rate and lacking a planned health promotion system, the saturated media market can be the most feasible vehicle to transmit the information from the service provider to the target population [ 20 ].

Parents’ knowledge and practices to childhood immunisation in nepal: implications for health policy

Use of newspaper for the dissemination of health information to a mass audience has not been properly addressed in Nepal as radio was prioritised due to its nationwide accessibility. Within health communication and education, inter-personal communication is regarded as stronger than mass media because of its non-linear model and possibility of understanding the message.

For the inter-personal communication practices, most of the health policy and programme from the government has recognised its role to play for the deeply rooted traditional beliefs that is being obstacle to adopt modern health care facilities. To address the communication need of multi-ethnic and multi-lingual community of the country inter-personal communication is highly prioritized. These target groups are trained by the national health training programme on key health issues with assistance of IEC Information, Education and Communication in full on first use materials.

Different national health plans and policies have suggested the interpersonal communication channel and as well as mass media to create awareness on this type of information. The effectiveness of specific communication strategy in health sector, a timely review and implementation practices is also a problem. We do not know the popularity and effectiveness of current health programme and media components delivered through different media.

There is gap on how the interpersonal communication network is working to educate people on immunisation issues. This study has focused on national immunisation strategy from a communication perspective regarding the effectiveness of an interpersonal communication channel and mass media networks set under the immunisation programme.

Parents' knowledge, attitude and practice are associated with immunisation coverage among their children. However, the role of family who ensure that children are immunised has not yet been studied in Nepal. Methods and Materials Quantitative research method was used for this explorative study.

Using stratified quota sampling methods, participants were selected from three areas urban, semi-urban and urban-slum areas of Kathmandu district [ 21 ].

vaccinations required for india and nepal relationship

A total of parents with at least one child below the age of five were selected; half male and half female. The first author visited door-to-door to identify the possible respondents.

vaccinations required for india and nepal relationship

Sample size is calculated using web based sample size calculator. No statistical validation was performed for the research instrument as this was already validated questionnaire used for national level in the past. The vaccine schedule recommended under the EPI programme for every child under the age of one was asked to parents.

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Those parents who correctly answered the number of required dose was categorised as having a good level of knowledge. Similarly, those parents who answered the number of required dose incorrectly was categorised as having poor knowledge. Questionnaire data were coded, checked and cleaned before entering into SPSS version A pilot study provides advice for the study as well as helps to identify possible problems and solution [ 22 ].

The pilot study was conducted by distributing the questionnaire to the parents in Kathmandu prior to the main study. The pilot study participants were requested to comment on structure, language clarity and organisation of the questions. Ten responses were received and based on these the order of questions was slightly changed and some multiple-choice questions were rephrased. The study was both confidential and anonymous as was clearly stated on the questionnaire. The majority of respondents were from the Janajati community, most were Hindu and a minority was Buddhists.

One-third was illiterate, whilst most attended only primary education. Source of Information Our study suggests that health workers were the major source of information on immunisation. The respondents from urban area might have the effects on the national aggregate picture. This finding shows the importance of the communication in interpersonal level that it primarily means sharing and making the message or content common.

The companionship influence has close connection with this finding. Health workers including doctor, nurse and FCHV have been recognised as a key channel of interpersonal health communication. Thus radio, TV, newspapers and the internet acted as a mass media source and health worker, family and the development worker facilitated the interpersonal communication.

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Forty percent of the respondents tagged health workers as their main source of information, and more than half At the same time, few said that health workers were not a source of information on childhood-related immunisation. Less popular sources of information were TV, radio, literature and posters, newspapers and the internet. It has been found that one-quarter The finding clearly shows that the highly prioritised IEC information, education and communication materials like handy literature and posters, has nominal effect on respondents as a source of information.

Newspapers were also marked as a non-effective means of communication on immunisation issues.

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The majority of vaccinations took place at health posts and community hospitals. Similarly, nearly one-fifth Some respondents mentioned that they immunize their child because the immunisation is easily available. The least common motivating factor was the fear of isolation created due to ignoring the immunisation campaign. Attitude and Practice in Immunisation Our studies found that Whilst age, religion and living in own home or rented home were not significant Table 4.

Illiteracy of parents was associated with non-completion of the immunisation schedule. Also children from the Dalit community were less likely to be fully immunisation those from upper caste and the Janajati community.

vaccinations required for india and nepal relationship

Moreover, younger parents were less likely to fully immunise their child than older parents. The people who lived in the rent home also are not immunising child completely. Parents who are engaged in business and services were more likely to fully immunise their child compared to parents engaged in agriculture or on daily wages.

Eating raw, unpeeled fruits and vegetables is also not advised. Hepatitis B risk in Nepal Hepatitis B is one of the most common vaccine preventable diseases and it affects the liver. Hepatitis B can be passed on through contact of bodily fluids. That means if you are intending to get a tattoo or piercing, may have contact with needles in any way or may enter a new sexual relationship while in Nepal you should seriously consider the hepatitis B vaccine.

Vaccination advice for long-term travel or adventure travel Some vaccines are only recommended for travellers who will be staying a longer period in Nepal, or participating in certain activities. Even if you think you know what vaccines you need before travelling, it is important to tell the doctor about all of your travel plans to establish which vaccines are necessary and what any risks might be.

You should also discuss your general health and history and the purpose of your visit with the doctor to get the best advise tailored to you and your needs.

During certain times of the year, and depending how long you are going to spend in Nepal, you may also need the Japanese Encephalitis vaccine. This could be the case if you are visiting more rural or remote areas, and may depend on the rest of your travel plans too, but the Travel Vaccination Clinic doctor can advise you whether you need this vaccine and if needed can provide it Rabies: If you will be in Nepal for one month or longer, or are going to be doing outdoor activities such as hiking, camping, biking or other adventure travel, you may be advised to get the rabies vaccine before travelling to Nepal.

This is because bats, rats, dogs and other mammals may carry rabies in Nepal.