Chapter 5 language and meaning helping minds meet

chapter 5 language and meaning helping minds meet

Part 5 – Assessment (see CEF, chapter 3, Table 2 / 4, scales / 5, scales / 9) .. . This guide is intended to help all members of the language teaching profession to .. The Council of Europe attaches considerable importance to promoting .. The Rüschlikon Symposium laid down criteria for CEF to meet. what can we do to help ourselves and other people to learn a language better? them to meet the challenges of communication across language and cultural perhaps because it is not appropriate to the learners you have in mind, draw it to your attention), Chapters 4 and 5 of the Framework will supply names for major . resource package produced by the English Language Education Section, . encounters with words, for example, by inferring the meaning of a new word from the . for vocabulary uptake has concluded that a learner needs to meet a new word .. mind map in Part B. 5. Draw students' attention to the entry for 'hot'. Ask them.

Painting the broad landscape for the entire class will give those who are struggling to find a broader context for their work and sustain their inquiries, so she decides to create an opportunity to do so. When she is not in discussions with students, she mills around the areas where her students work, moving from group to group, sometimes asking questions, sometimes just listening and observing before she joins the next group. She carries a clipboard on which she jots down notes, quotes, and questions that she will want to come back to with a particular student or the entire group.

Through the journals, her observations, the discussions, and other assessment activities, Ms. K stays connected to the sense her students are making of their work as it unfolds. At the very beginning of the project, Ms. K and her students started conversations about how their projects would be assessed.

As a class, they cycle back through the criteria that were established, deepening understanding by highlighting exemplars from past projects and just talking through what constitutes quality work. They share examples of visual display boards, written reports, and models from other projects. K wants to make sure that each student understands the standards that they are expected to meet.

Students chose many of the criteria by which they wish their peers to evaluate them, and, with Ms. K's help, they developed an evaluation rubric that will be ready on presentation day—now just 2 weeks away. At that time, they will be making public reports to peers, parents, and community members.

After considerable research into existing curriculum materials and much discussion, the team decided to build a technology piece into some of the current science studies. The third-grade teacher on the team, Ms. They selected three topics that they knew they would be teaching the following year: That winter, when the end of the sound study neared, Ms.

She posed a question to the entire class: Having studied sound for almost 6 weeks, could they design and make musical instruments that would produce sounds for entertainment? R had collected a variety of materials, which she now displayed on a table, including boxes, tubes, string, wire, hooks, scrap wood, dowels, plastic, rubber, fabric and more.

chapter 5 language and meaning helping minds meet

The students had been working in groups of four during the sound study, and Ms. R asked them to gather into those groups to think about the kinds of instruments they would like to make. R asked the students to think particularly about what they knew about sound, what kind of sound Page 28 Share Cite Suggested Citation: How would the sound be produced?

What would make the sound? She suggested they might want to look at the materials she had brought in, but they could think about other materials too.

chapter 5 language and meaning helping minds meet

R sent the students to work in their groups. Collaborative work had been the basis of most of the science inquiry the student had done; for this phase, Ms.

R felt that the students should work together to discuss and share ideas, but she suggested that each student might want to have an instrument at the end to play and to take home. As the students began to talk in their groups, Ms. R added elements to the activity. They would have only the following 2 weeks to make their instruments. Furthermore, any materials they needed beyond what was in the boxes had to be materials that were readily available and inexpensive.

She moved among groups, listening and adding comments. When she felt that discussions had gone as far as they could go, she asked each group to draw a picture of the instruments the children thought they would like to make, write a short piece on how they thought they would make them, and make a list of the materials that they would need.

R made a list of what was needed, noted which children and which groups might profit from discussing their ideas with one another, and suggested that the children think about their task, collect materials if they could, and come to school in the next week prepared to build their instruments.

Some designs were simple and easy to implement, for example, one group was making a rubber-band player by stretching different widths and lengths of rubber bands around a plastic gallon milk container with the top cut off.

Another group was making drums of various sizes using some thick cardboard tubes and pieces of thin rubber roofing material. For many, the designs could not be translated into reality, and much change and trial and error ensued. One group planned to build a guitar and designed a special shape for the sound box, but after the glued sides of their original box collapsed twice, the group decided to use the wooden box that someone had added to the supply table.

In a few cases, the original design was abandoned, and a new design emerged as the instrument took shape. At the end of the second week, Ms. R set aside 2 days for the students to reflect on what they had done individually and as a class. On Friday, they were once again to draw and write about their instruments.

Where groups had worked together on an instrument, one report was to be prepared. On the next Monday, each group was to make a brief presentation of the instrument, what it could do, how the design came to be, and what challenges had been faced. As a final effort, the class could prepare a concert for other third grades.

chapter 5 language and meaning helping minds meet

In making the musical instruments, students relied on knowledge and understanding developed while studying sound, as well as the principles of design, to make an instrument that produced sound. The assessment task for the musical instruments follows. The titles emphasize some important components of the assessment process. Page 29 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The K-4 science content standard on science and technology is supported by the idea that students should be able to communicate the purpose of a design.

The K-4 physical science standard is supported by the fundamental understanding of the characteristics of sound, a form of energy. Students demonstrate the products of their design work to their peers and reflect on what the project taught them about the nature of sound and the process of design. This can be public, group, or individual, embedded in teaching. This activity assesses student progress toward understanding the purpose and processes of design. The information will be used to plan the next design activity.

The activity also permits the teacher to gather data about understanding of sound.

How We Make Memories - Crash Course Psychology #13

Observations of the student performance. Third-grade students have not completed a design project. Their task is to present the product of their work to their peers and talk about what they learned about sound and design as a result of doing the project. This is a challenging task for third-grade students, and the teacher will have to provide considerable guidance to the groups of students as they plan their presentations.

As described in the science standards, the teacher provided the following directions that served as a framework that students could use to plan their presentations. Play your instrument for the class. Show the class the part of the instrument that makes the sound. Describe to the class the purpose function that the other parts of the instrument have.

Show the class how you can make the sound louder. Show the class how you can change the pitch how high or how low the sound is of the sound. Tell the class about how you made the instrument, including What kind of instrument did you want to make? As more complex topics are addressed, students cannot always return to basic phenomena for every conceptual understanding.

Nevertheless, teachers can take an inquiry approach as they guide students in acquiring and interpreting information from sources such as libraries, government documents, and computer databases—or as they gather information from experts from industry, the community, and government.

Other teaching strategies rely on teachers, texts, and secondary sources—such as video, film, and computer simulations. When secondary sources of scientific knowledge are used, students need to be made aware of the processes by which the knowledge presented in these sources was acquired and to understand that the sources are authoritative and accepted within the scientific community.

When carefully guided by teachers to ensure full participation by all, interactions among individuals and groups in the classroom can be vital in deepening the understanding of scientific concepts and the nature of scientific endeavors. The size of a group depends on age, resources, and the nature of the inquiry. Teachers of science must decide when and for what purposes to use whole-class instruction, small-group collaboration, and individual work.

For example, investigating simple electric circuits initially might best be explored individually. As students move toward building complex circuits, small group interactions might be more effective to share ideas and materials, and a full-class discussion then might be used to verify experiences and draw conclusions.

The plans of teachers provide opportunities for all students to learn science. Therefore, planning is heavily dependent on the teacher's awareness and understanding of the diverse abilities, interests, and cultural backgrounds of students in the classroom.

Planning also takes into account the social structure of the classroom and the challenges posed by diverse student groups. Effective planning includes sensitivity to student views that might conflict with current scientific knowledge and strategies that help to support alternative ways of making sense of the world while developing the scientific explanations.

Teachers plan activities that they and the students will use to assess the understanding and abilities that students hold when they begin a learning activity. In addition, appropriate ways are designed to monitor the development of knowledge, understanding, and abilities as students pursue their work throughout the academic year.

Individual and collective planning is a cornerstone of science teaching; it is a vehicle for professional support and growth. In the vision of science education described in the Standards, many planning decisions are made by groups of teachers at grade and building levels to construct coherent and articulated programs within and across grades.

Schools must provide teachers with time and access to their colleagues and others who can serve as resources if collaborative planning is to occur.

Teaching Standard B Teachers of science guide and facilitate learning. In doing this, teachers Focus and support inquiries while interacting with students. Orchestrate discourse among students about scientific ideas. Challenge students to accept and share responsibility for their own learning. Recognize and respond to student diversity and encourage all students to participate fully in science learning.

Encourage and model the skills of scientific inquiry, as well as the curiosity, openness to new ideas and data, and skepticism that characterize science. Coordinating people, ideas, materials, and the science classroom environment are Page 33 Share Cite Suggested Citation: This standard focuses on the work that teachers do as they implement the plans of Standard A in the classroom.

Teachers of science constantly make decisions, such as when to change the direction of a discussion, how to engage a particular At all stages of inquiry, teachers guide, focus, challenge, and encourage student learning. Teachers must struggle with the tension between guiding students toward a set of predetermined goals and allowing students to set and meet their own goals.

Teachers face a similar tension between taking the time to allow students to pursue an interest in greater depth and the need to move on to new areas to be studied.

Furthermore, teachers constantly strike a balance among the demands of the understanding and ability to be acquired and the demands of student-centered developmental learning. The result of making these decisions is the enacted curriculum—the planned curriculum as it is modified and shaped by the interactions of students, teachers, materials, and daily life in the classroom. Student inquiry in the science classroom encompasses a range of activities. Some activities provide a basis for observation, data collection, reflection, and analysis of firsthand events and phenomena.

Other activities encourage the critical analysis of secondary sources—including media, books, and journals in a library. Students formulate questions and devise ways to answer them, they collect data and decide how to represent it, they organize data to generate knowledge, and they test the reliability of the knowledge they have generated. As they proceed, students explain and justify their work to themselves and to one another, learn to cope with problems such as the limitations of equipment, and react to challenges posed by the teacher and by classmates.

Students assess the efficacy of their efforts—they evaluate the data they have collected, re-examining or collecting more if necessary, and making statements about the generalizability of their findings. They plan and make presentations to the rest of the class about their work and accept and react to the constructive criticism of others. At all stages of inquiry, teachers guide, focus, challenge, and encourage student learning. Successful teachers are skilled observers of students, as well as knowledgeable about science and how it is learned.

Teachers match their actions to the particular needs of the students, deciding when and how to guide—when to demand more rigorous grappling by the students, when to provide information, when to provide particular tools, and when to connect students with other sources.

Page 34 Share Cite Suggested Citation: She plans to do this through inquiry. Of the many organisms she might choose to use, she selects an organism that is familiar to the students, one that they have observed in the schoolyard.

As a life-long learner, Ms. She also uses the resources of the school—materials available for science and media in the school library. She models the habits and values of science by the care provided to the animals. Students write and draw their observations. Developing communication skills in science and in language arts reinforce one another.

Although she had never used earthworms in the science classroom before, and she knew she could use any of a number of small animals to meet her goals, Ms.

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She called the local museum of natural history to talk with personnel to be sure she knew enough about earthworms to care for them and to guide the children's explorations.

She learned that it was relatively easy to house earthworms over long periods. She was told that if she ordered the earthworms from a biological supply house, they would come with egg cases and baby, earthworms and the children would be able to observe the adult earthworms, the egg cases, the young earthworms, and some of the animal's habits.

Before preparing a habitat for the earthworms, students spent time outdoors closely examining the environment where the worms had been found.

chapter 5 language and meaning helping minds meet

This field trip was followed by a discussion about important aspects of keeping earthworms in the classroom: How would students create a place for the earthworms that closely resembled the natural setting? An earthworm from outside was settled into a large terrarium away from direct sun; black paper was secured over the sides of the terrarium into which the children had put soil, leaves, and grass.

A week later the earthworms arrived from the supply company and were added to the habitat. She wanted the students to become familiar with the basic needs of the earthworms and how to care for them.

It was important that the children develop a sense of responsibility toward living things as well as enhance their skills of observation and recording. She also felt that this third grade class would be able to design simple experiments that would help the students learn about some of the behaviors of the earthworms. In the first 2 weeks, the students began closely observing the earthworms and recording their habits. The students recorded what the earthworms looked like, how they moved, and what the students thought Page 35 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The students described color and shape; they weighed and measured the earthworms and kept a large chart of the class data, which provoked a discussion about variation.

They observed and described how the earthworms moved on a surface and in the soil. Questions and ideas about the earthworms came up continually. Among the many questions on the chart were: How do the earthworms have babies?

Do they like to live in some kinds of soil better than others? What are those funny things on the top of the soil? Do they really like the dark? How do they go through the dirt? How big can an earthworm get? When the class reconvened, each group shared what they were going to explore and how they might investigate the topic. The students engaged in lively discussion as they shared their proposed explorations.

A week later, the investigations were well under way.