How the Lungs Work | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Blood Centre · Bone · Brain · Cancer · Dental · Eye · Fitness · Gastro · Heart · Hormone · Infection The following information describes the structure and function of the heart and the The heart is located in between the two lungs. . The reason for the difference between the sexes is not fully understood. The brain structure is composed of three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain and largest part of the human brain, and it is associated with higher brain function knowledge of numbers and their relations, and in the manipulation of objects. involuntary life sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing and heart rate. Heart pumps deoxygenated blood into the lungs while the lungs oxygenate it. The oxygenated blood returns back to the heart and is recirculated to the body.
They tend to think the contents of the body are what they have seen being put into or coming out of it, such as food and blood.
Their experiences with everyday cuts, scratches and bruises seem to reinforce a view that blood is below the surface of the skin, filling the spaces inside the body like a bag of blood. Older children are more likely to be able to list a large number of organs but may not fully understand the function or interconnected nature of these. For example, students at these levels may realise that the heart is a pump but not realise that the blood returns to the heart, or they may believe that the brain helps the body parts but not always realise that the body helps the brain.
When two or more organs along with their associated structures work together they become component parts of a body system. Some of the easily recognisable internal organs and their associated functions are: The brain The brain is the control centre of the nervous system and is located within the skull.
Its functions include muscle control and coordination, sensory reception and integration, speech production, memory storage, and the elaboration of thought and emotion. The lungs The lungs are two sponge-like, cone-shaped structures that fill most of the chest cavity.
Their essential function is to provide oxygen from inhaled air to the bloodstream and to exhale carbon dioxide.
Heart and Circulatory System
The liver The liver lies on the right side of the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm. Its main function is to process the contents of the blood to ensure composition remains the same.
This process involves breaking down fats, producing urea, filtering harmful substances and maintaining a proper level of glucose in the blood. The bladder The bladder is a muscular organ located in the pelvic cavity. It stretches to store urine and contracts to release urine.
The kidneys The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located at the back of the abdominal cavity, one on each side of the spinal column. The heart The heart is a hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood through the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. The stomach The stomach is a muscular, elastic, pear-shaped bag, lying crosswise in the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm.
Its main purpose is digestion of food through production of gastric juices which break down, mix and churn the food into a thin liquid. The intestines The intestines are located between the stomach and the anus and are divided into two major sections: The function of the small intestine is to absorb most ingested food. The large intestine is responsible for absorption of water and excretion of solid waste material.
Critical teaching ideas Humans may look different but inside they share identical component parts.
What's the Connection? Your Heart Can Affect Your Breathing
The human body contains major internal organs or body parts which can be easily identified. These organs differ in size, shape, location and function. Each organ has a specific role which contributes to the overall wellbeing of the human body. A group of organs whose jobs are closely related are often referred to as a system.
Explore the relationships between ideas about internal body organs in the Concept Development Maps Cell Functions. The Respiratory System The respiratory system is made up of organs and tissues that help you breathe.
The main parts of this system are the airways, the lungs and linked blood vessels, and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory structures in the body. Figure B is an enlarged view of the airways, alveoli air sacsand capillaries tiny blood vessels. Figure C is a closeup view of gas exchange between the capillaries and alveoli.
CO2 is carbon dioxide, and O2 is oxygen. Airways The airways are pipes that carry oxygen-rich air to your lungs. They also carry carbon dioxide, a waste gas, out of your lungs. The airways include your: Nose and linked air passages called nasal cavities Mouth Larynx LAR-ingksor voice box Trachea TRA-ke-ahor windpipe Tubes called bronchial tubes or bronchi, and their branches Air first enters your body through your nose or mouth, which wets and warms the air.
Cold, dry air can irritate your lungs. The air then travels through your voice box and down your windpipe. The windpipe splits into two bronchial tubes that enter your lungs. A thin flap of tissue called the epiglottis ep-ih-GLOT-is covers your windpipe when you swallow. This prevents food and drink from entering the air passages that lead to your lungs.
Except for the mouth and some parts of the nose, all of the airways have special hairs called cilia SIL-e-ah that are coated with sticky mucus.
The cilia trap germs and other foreign particles that enter your airways when you breathe in air. These fine hairs then sweep the particles up to the nose or mouth. From there, they're swallowed, coughed, or sneezed out of the body. Nose hairs and mouth saliva also trap particles and germs.
Lungs and Blood Vessels Your lungs and linked blood vessels deliver oxygen to your body and remove carbon dioxide from your body. Your lungs lie on either side of your breastbone and fill the inside of your chest cavity. Your left lung is slightly smaller than your right lung to allow room for your heart. Within the lungs, your bronchi branch into thousands of smaller, thinner tubes called bronchioles.
These tubes end in bunches of tiny round air sacs called alveoli al-VEE-uhl-eye. Each of these air sacs is covered in a mesh of tiny blood vessels called capillaries. The capillaries connect to a network of arteries and veins that move blood through your body. The pulmonary PULL-mun-ary artery and its branches deliver blood rich in carbon dioxide and lacking in oxygen to the capillaries that surround the air sacs.
Inside the air sacs, carbon dioxide moves from the blood into the air. At the same time, oxygen moves from the air into the blood in the capillaries. The oxygen-rich blood then travels to the heart through the pulmonary vein and its branches. The heart pumps the oxygen-rich blood out to the body.
The lungs are divided into five main sections called lobes. Some people need to have a diseased lung lobe removed. However, they can still breathe well using the rest of their lung lobes. Muscles Used for Breathing Muscles near the lungs help expand and contract tighten the lungs to allow breathing. These muscles include the: Diaphragm DI-ah-fram Abdominal muscles Muscles in the neck and collarbone area The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle located below your lungs.
It separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. The diaphragm is the main muscle used for breathing. The intercostal muscles are located between your ribs. They also play a major role in helping you breathe.
Beneath your diaphragm are abdominal muscles. They help you breathe out when you're breathing fast for example, during physical activity. Muscles in your neck and collarbone area help you breathe in when other muscles involved in breathing don't work well, or when lung disease impairs your breathing.
Internal body organs
What Happens When You Breathe? Breathing In Inhalation When you breathe in, or inhale, your diaphragm contracts tightens and moves downward. This increases the space in your chest cavity, into which your lungs expand. The intercostal muscles between your ribs also help enlarge the chest cavity. They contract to pull your rib cage both upward and outward when you inhale.
As your lungs expand, air is sucked in through your nose or mouth. The air travels down your windpipe and into your lungs.
After passing through your bronchial tubes, the air finally reaches and enters the alveoli air sacs. Through the very thin walls of the alveoli, oxygen from the air passes to the surrounding capillaries blood vessels. A red blood cell protein called hemoglobin HEE-muh-glow-bin helps move oxygen from the air sacs to the blood.
At the same time, carbon dioxide moves from the capillaries into the air sacs. The gas has traveled in the bloodstream from the right side of the heart through the pulmonary artery. Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs is carried through a network of capillaries to the pulmonary vein.