So that was how I got to meet some of the fellows early—not on the Albert Einstein to his wife as they left their house in Germany, December "I'll be the brains!" - Adolf Hitler to a German journalist who asked him who would be the . Although Einstein did not contribute directly the bomb effort, his. They weren't very fond of him or his physics. There was a nationalistic physics movement in Nazi Germany called "Deutsche Physik" that acted as a reaction. Several Nazi leaders, including Hitler and Himmler, endorsed the ridiculous “ cosmic At a meeting of the Society of German Scientists and Physicians in Bad Einstein did remain in Berlin, but he was evidently unsettled.
One per cent was reserved for the Jews in the land of their origin". This letter has led some[ who? In his Will ofEinstein bequeathed literary rights to his writings to The Hebrew University, where many of his original documents are held in the Albert Einstein Archives.
When he arrived in America, he objected to the mistreatment of African Americans.
Albert Einstein's letter warning about Adolf Hitler before World War II goes for auction
When African-American singer and civil rights supporter Marian Anderson was denied rooms at hotels and forbidden to eat at public restaurants, Einstein invited her to his home.
After a bloody racial riot in in which state troopers with submachine guns attacked and destroyed virtually every black-owned business in a four-square-block area in Tennessee and arrested 25 black men for attempted murder, Einstein joined Eleanor RooseveltLangston Hughesand Thurgood Marshall to fight for justice for the men.
Later, 24 of the 25 defendants were acquitted. There is, however, a somber point in the social outlook of Americans.
Their sense of equality and human dignity is mainly limited to men of white skins. Albert Einstein speech at Princeton University Inthe Nobel Prize-winning physicist traveled to Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, the alma mater of Langston Hughes and Thurgood Marshall and the first school in America to grant college degrees to blacks. At Lincoln, Einstein received an honorary degree and gave a lecture on relativity to Lincoln students. He became good friends with Robeson and when Robeson was blacklisted because of his activism against racism, again it was Einstein who opened his home to his long-time friend of 20 years.
From the Scottsboro Boys case to the numerous attempts to stop the execution of Willie McGeea black Mississippi sharecropper accused of raping a white woman, and efforts to prevent New Jersey from extraditing Sam Buckhannon, a black Georgian who had escaped a chain gang after serving 18 years for stealing a pack of cigarettes, Einstein used his fame to condemn American racism.
Eastern Asians[ edit ] Written between October and Marchthe diaries of Einstein released in contains what has been called racist remarks.
All this occurs quietly and demurely. Even the children are spiritless and look obtuse. For the likes of us the mere thought is unspeakably dreary. One has to love and admire this country. Also he sympathized with the idea of Vegetarianism. In this letter Einstein states that he was feeling quite well without non-vegetarian food and that "man was not born to be a carnivore".
But already a year before he wrote in another letter: Manhattan Project Concerned scientists, many of them refugees in the U. By latethe U. Einstein himself did not play a role in the development of the atomic bomb other than signing the letter although he did help the United States Navy with some unrelated theoretical questions it was working on during the war. With Albert Schweitzer and Bertrand RussellEinstein lobbied to stop nuclear testing and future bombs. When the aged W.
Du Bois was accused of being a Communist spy, Einstein volunteered as a character witness, and the case was dismissed shortly afterward.
Einstein's friendship with activist Paul Robesonwith whom he served as co-chair of the American Crusade to End Lynchinglasted twenty years. Ruggles Smith, and activist attorney George Alpert on the Albert Einstein Foundation for Higher Learning, which was formed to create a Jewish-sponsored secular university, open to all students, on the grounds of the former Middlesex University in Waltham, Massachusetts.
Middlesex was chosen in part because it was accessible from both Boston and New York City, Jewish cultural centers of the U. Their vision was a university "deeply conscious both of the Hebraic tradition of Torah looking upon culture as a birthright, and of the American ideal of an educated democracy.
Finally, when Einstein wanted to appoint British economist Harold Laski as the university's president, George Alpert wrote that Laski was "a man utterly alien to American principles of democracy, tarred with the Communist brush.
InBrandeis offered Einstein an honorary degree, but he declined. In such an economy, the means of production are owned by society itself and are utilized in a planned fashion. A planned economy, which adjusts production to the needs of the community, would distribute the work to be done among all those able to work and would guarantee a livelihood to every man, woman, and child. The education of the individual, in addition to promoting his own innate abilities, would attempt to develop in him a sense of responsibility for his fellow-men in place of the glorification of power and success in our present society.
I do not consider his methods practical, but one thing is certain: Federal Bureau of Investigation kept a file on Einstein  that grew to 1, pages. Einstein considered Joseph McCarthya U. The Jews, he said, turn debates about objective questions into personal disputes. This pervasive soul of nature was the wellspring of science itself—and only Aryans, said Lenard, understood this: He lamented the encroachment of technology in modern life: The enthusiasm of the Nazi regime for this brand of mysticism and pseudoscience has been well documented, although perhaps not enough has yet been made of the resonances between fascism, Naturphilosophie, the cultish mysticism of Rudolf Steiner 2 and anthroposophy, and the cozy certainties of some New Age beliefs.
Reified worship of nature as opposed to respect for it has always teetered on the brink of a fundamentally fascist ideology. When, in the s, Einstein began to experience racially motivated criticism and abuse in the German popular and academic press, Lenard joined in gleefully.
At a meeting of the Society of German Scientists and Physicians in Bad Nauheim in SeptemberEinstein and Lenard were pitched head to head in a debate about relativity. This confrontation followed an attack on Einstein at a public meeting held in Berlin the previous month, allegedly organized by the Working Group of German Scientists for the Preservation of Pure Science. Weyland had announced that his lecture was the first in a series of twenty that would lay bare the deceptions of relativity.
In the event, only one other followed, by the equally anti-Semitic applied physicist Ludwig Glaser. The whole shabby affair aroused wide indignation: Einstein did remain in Berlin, but he was evidently unsettled.
Accounts of the debate differ. In any event, neither Einstein nor Lenard was pleased with the outcome. Physics for Hitler Lenard was not the only influential scientist in the anti-Einstein camp.
In the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Johannes Stark for his discovery of the effect of electric fields on the energies of photons emitted from atoms as electrons jump between their quantum orbits. Like Lenard, Stark was an experimentalist befuddled by the mathematical complexity that had recently entered physics.
He was another extreme nationalist whose right-wing views had been hardened by the First World War. He too felt that Einstein had stolen his ideas, this time over the quantum-mechanical description of light-driven chemical reactions.
And being a mediocrity who struck lucky, he found himself being passed over for academic appointments to which he was convinced he had the best claim.
But Einstein was undoubtedly perceived as the ringleader of the whole affair. By the situation had deteriorated to such a degree that Einstein declined to speak at a session of the Society of German Scientists and Physicians in Leipzig, fearing that his life might be in danger. In June the Jewish foreign minister of the Weimar government Walther Rathenau, who Einstein knew well, was assassinated in Berlin by two ultra-nationalist army officers.
Lenard had refused to lower the flag of his institute at Heidelberg as a mark of respect for the murdered minister, and as a result he had been dragged from his laboratory by an angry mob of students.
When he was reprimanded by the university, he announced his resignation in disgust. In the end Lenard clung on at Heidelberg untilwhen he was replaced by Walther Bothe. Lenard so dominated the physics institute at Heidelberg that it was named after him in We shall follow him.
The Nazi leader noted this pledge of support, and he and Rudolf Hess visited Lenard at home in At the same time he channeled his resentment against academia generally and theoretical physics in particular into a book called The Present Crisis in German Physics.
How Aryans created science For Stark and Lenard, the canker at the core of German physics was not merely the nepotism of the Jews and their lackeys, nor the obscure theories and unpatriotic internationalism of Einstein.
The fundamental problem lay with a foreign and degenerate approach to science itself.
The popular notion that science has a universal nature and spirit, they said, is quite wrong. Jews did science differently from true Germans. He is a masterly self-publicist, courting and seducing the press and the public — just look at Einstein. Rather, in his work he must serve the nation first and foremost.
For these reasons, the leading scientific positions in the National Socialist state are to be occupied not by elements alien to the Volk but only by nationally conscious German men. Thus, in its consequences the theory of relativity appears to be less a scientific than a political problem. The simple question that precedes every scientific enterprise is: It follows necessarily that there can only be the science of a particular type of humanity and of a particular age.
There is very likely a Nordic science, and a National Socialist science, which are bound to be opposed to the Liberal—Jewish science, which, indeed, is no longer fulfilling its function anywhere, but is in the process of nullifying itself.
Indeed, Hitler purposely maintained a distance between his own views and edicts and their practical implementation. The actual response of the National Socialist authorities to Deutsche Physik was not uncritical acceptance but something rather more complex. Deutsche Physik under the Nazis The anti-Einstein activism of Stark, Lenard and their fellow travellers continued through the early s.
In a hundred scientists and philosophers contributed to a volume denouncing Einstein and his theories. A few supporters, such as Laue and Walther Nernst, defended him publicly against such onslaughts. When Hitler became Reich chancellor, the Deutsche Physiker must have felt that their moment had come. And so it seemed — at first.
Laue was one of the very few scientists in prominent positions to move beyond private grumbles and little acts of defiance into open admission of his contempt for the Nazis.
But by and by he saw that one could not simply stand aloof from National Socialism. Indeed, he implied to Einstein that he stayed in Germany only because his loathing of the Nazis made him desperate to see their downfall. He was forced into this line of conduct because he could bear the danger thus incurred better than he could have borne passive acceptance of a government whose immorality and cruelty he despised.
The following year he was appointed president of the German Research Foundation, which controlled much of the funding for science, and he promptly withdrew funds for work in theoretical physics. Because of a shift of political power, Stark fell from grace and was forced to retire from this post two years later, whereupon funds for theoretical physics were restored.
Einstein's Letter Warning of Hitler Goes Up for Auction
Under his protection and encouragement, our scientific work will serve the German people and increase German esteem in the world. Heisenberg, for example, told Stark that he agreed with the sentiments but felt it inappropriate for scientists to make public pronouncements on political matters.
That was not just a convenient excuse but a genuine statement of belief, which cut both ways: Stark and Lenard fretted about the KWG, which seemed to them to be decidedly lax about expelling its Jewish members — no doubt, they were convinced, because it was dominated by an Einsteinian cabal.
But Planck did not retire; he stayed for a second term of office. When that was due to expire in MarchStark felt sure he would be called upon as the new president. Well then, said Stark, it must be Lenard.
Rust approved of that idea, but now Lenard himself declined, saying he was too old. No other successor was put forward, and meanwhile Planck stayed on. Planck knew that Rust would not endorse a replacement who was too closely associated with Einstein, and would prefer someone known to be faithful to the party. He was duly elected in But in place of the secretary Friedrich Glum, Rust appointed the Nazi official Ernst Telschow, who had some chemical training and had worked briefly under Otto Hahn.
Arguably this was no bad thing for the KWG, for Telschow was a canny administrator, able to form links with the Nazi regime that would benefit the society.
One of those individuals who knew how to adapt to the prevailing political climate, Telschow was active in the renamed society after the war and was finally elected a senator in While the KWG was not exactly Nazified inthen, neither did it thenceforth mount any effective resistance to the wishes of the government. White Jews This outcome did not afford the Deutsche Physiker much satisfaction, and in Stark decided it was time to find another line of assault on his enemies in theoretical physics.
Stark began a crusade against Werner Heisenberg.
How 2 Pro-Nazi Nobelists Attacked Einstein’s "Jewish Science" [Excerpt] - Scientific American
There he even mentioned Einstein by name, earning him a reprimand from the Nazi chief ideologue Alfred Rosenberg. But by Heisenberg was deeply disheartened by the political climate. His sense of patriotism and honor was disturbed after the Nuremberg Laws had removed the exemption from dismissal for Jewish veterans of the First World War. He had even risked damaging his reputation and prospects by registering that displeasure at a faculty meeting.
His words of protest, however, show how the Nazis had already set the parameters of the debate: In other words, it was not the principle of an exclusive national community that he challenged, but who was selected for membership.
On that occasion Heisenberg had considered resigning or so he claimedbut was dissuaded by Planck, who cautioned once again that this would be a futile dereliction of duty. Like most of his peers, Heisenberg withdrew into physics.
This speech was printed in the January issue of the party periodical Nationalsozialistische Monatshefte.