for any purpose other than in connection with a definitely related Govern- ment procurement operation . of the man-machine job will be made from operational equipment. If this equip- ment is in . relation to each other in time. Each separate. The field of man-machine systems - the analysis and synthesis of systems in which and fuzzy relations (as constrasted to exclusive-set probablistic events); and (4) Governed by political-economic factors rather than technical necessities, the most basic and conceptual aspects of their structure and mode of operation. Find out information about Man-Machine System. human-machine system a system the management of some type of operation, or the processing of information. and machine, each of the two components of the system is governed in its a role whereby man assumes the attitude of controller and regulator in relation to.
I believe that every time we offload a task to an algorithm a machine we will also need to think about what kind of humarithm we need to offset the side-effects, i. For example, we may eventually come to the conclusion that commercial airliners can indeed be better piloted by software and robots than by human beings; most research already indicates that this is indeed the case.
But if so, we must certainly think about how the passengers will feel about traveling inside a large metal tube that is steered entirely by a robot. This may well be a typical case of where efficiency should not trump humanity. The trap of machine-thinking In my view, the issue is less likely to be the cookie-cutter, dystopian Hollywood plot that we have watched dozens of times, i. The much bigger concern is that we as humans, might soon be forced to effectively behave more like — or even become — machines in order to remain productive or useful in a machine-age economy.
Just imagine a world where you simply cannot compete or even keep up without some kind of wearable augmented reality AR or virtual reality VR device, or without an implant, or other mental or physical augmentations. Given that many of us are already utterly dependent on our mobile devices, and often feel alone or incomplete without them, these scenarios may become reality a lot faster than we think.
Once these technologies are cheap, easy to use, and ubiquitous their utter convenience will be extremely tempting. The real question for now is probably not if and when the machines will attempt to control, replace, or even eliminate us. The more fundamental and timely concern is whether and how we can remain truly human in a world that is quickly becoming a kind of global-brain-machine.
A machine comprised of super-intelligent software, hardware, and processes, with human traits being increasingly removed from the equation because they are simply slowing things down too much. Imagine a world without serendipity, boredom, mistakes, mystery, and surprise. A world in which everything has become efficient, optimized, hyper-connected, intelligent, and real-time?
In that worldwhat will happen to us humans, the limited wetware, the eight to nine billion people who may inhabit the planet in the next 20 years? If this strikes you as a wicked problem, consider that this gigantic man-machine operating system OS might in fact be what some of the leading global technology companies are already striving for. LinkedIn is busy building a global economic graph; a kind of proprietary OS for work, jobs, and HR that uses Big Data and AI to predict hiring trends and training needs among many other things.
Facebook already has its own global OS for social and commercial relationships, and Google has its Global Brain project amid its numerous investments in AI, robotics and deep learning companies. Clearly, the future is already here. The future of work and jobs: Ironically, this is completely the opposite of what traditional MBAs looked like, avoiding emotions, limiting imagination, and sticking to schedules and plans.
If you believe that non-algorithmic i. Education, training and learning will be changed forever as a consequence and we are already seeing the tip of that iceberg emerging.
What if — in the near future — many routine business activities or operations are actually handled by algorithms and intelligent agents acting on our behalf? In sectors such as procurement, logistics, or telecommunications network management it might well be possible to have intelligent, self-learning software, and reasoning robots take care of percent of the frequent and repetitive tasks, within a decade from today.
This would obviously lead to huge increases in efficiency and potentially massive costs savings, bringing much lower prices for consumers but also a crushing commoditization for those companies and people that currently provide these services. Clearly, human operators cannot and should not compete here — the only way for us is to move up the food-chain, i.
Who will have stewardship and control? Some urgent questions arise as we enter the age of man-machine convergence: Who is in charge of what is ignored, allowed, or sanctioned?
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If this is not just about technology and business but also about ethicsvalues, and culture, who would have authority over these matters? What will happen to our collective, cultural and social concerns, i. How will our social contracts change because of this, and will these achievements make us happier? The challenges of unintended consequences In my view, unintended consequences of exponential technological progress are by far the biggest challenge that we will need to tackle in this coming age of smart machines — and hopefully not Our Final Invention as James Barrat presents in his brilliant book.
Exponential technological advancements are certain to have a myriad of unintended yet even inter-related and combinatorial consequences. I believe that these must be considered more seriously before we proceed.
Some will prove to be rather harmless and more easily remedied such as using smartphones while driving becoming an increasing cause of accidents. Others may have potentially catastrophic outcomes — such as AIs that could learn how augment themselves, leading to a so-called AI explosion and super-intelligence that could spell the end of humanity as we know it again, as Hollywood likes to depict so deftly.
Drones also make for a very good example here. There is certainly some logic in augmenting or even replacing postal and delivery services with drones in urban areas or even in places that lack infrastructure such as in Africa. If we were actually to pursue this however, we are certain to face a slew of unintended consequences which may well void most benefits we may otherwise derive from it.
Consider issues such as these drones providing the perfect means for real-time surveillance, or the likelihood of citizens acquiring weapons or other means of disabling those drones that have become a nuisance to them.
Such wicked problems may well become the default in the very near future. How do we harness the positive outcomes of these new technologies without creating monsters on the flip side?
Opportunities and challenges driven by abundance Through exponential technological progress we will soon reach new levels of man-machine relationships. This clearly has the potential to solve many challenges that are subject to bold scientific endeavours — such as energy, food, water, and the environment. While this in itself is hardly a panacea either, it does enable business models that were impossible before, generating increased abundance at an even faster pace and quickly challenging our economic logic to the core — as we are already seeing in the debates about Uber and AirBnB.
What would be the purpose of increasing consumption if almost everything is abundant? When the price of most goods goes towards zero because they can be reproduced instantly, why do I need to work for a living, and what would my money still buy me?
On the flip side, the challenges of actually reaching abundance driven by a highly evolved man-machine OS will be numerous. This could result in social unrest, increased crime, and terrorism born out of sheer hopelessness.
There is also the quite real threat of creating a truly perfect real-time surveillance network where nothing, not even your thoughts, would remain private.
Man-Machine Systems: Design, Characteristics and Classification
Finally, there is the dramatic and global rise of machine thinking see above. This is accompanied by an increasingly popular mindset that treats human idiosyncrasies like story-telling, mystery, boredom, contemplation, and imagination as mostly wasteful and inefficient, and wishes to make an algorithm out of everything.
Digital ethics are becoming crucial as man and machine converge To be ready for this coming age of intelligent machines and increasing man-machine convergence I believe we urgently need to start debating and crafting a global Digital Ethics Treaty. The proper integration of man and machine, which is beneficial for human operator and enhances the overall system performance, is a primary aim of the ergonomics discipline.
Characteristics of Man-machine System Are as follows: Classification of Man-Machine Systems: Depending upon size and complexity, man machine systems are of following three types: They are essentially man directed systems. These are flexible in nature and small in size. Simple tools and equipment are used and the efficiency is dependent upon the human factor.Mod-02 Lec-22 Man-machine relationship
A large variability is possible in a manual system as every worker may select different method to do the same job. They are more complex and inflexible in nature than manual systems. The machine component is power driven and human activity is information processing, decision making and controlling occasionally knows semi automatic systems, they have components which are well integrated.
This is the feature which renders these systems rather inflexible. An automobile and a machine tool operated by driver or operator are good examples of his class.