A time for new north–south relationships in global health
Historically, textbooks have taught that incompatibility between northern and southern Everything else, many textbooks claim, was tied to that economic difference and Key political causes include the slow collapse of the Whig Party, the. The economic differences between the North and South contributed to the rise of political party and they were far more likely to have careers in business. The socio-political atmosphere of the Northern states was in turmoil during this tremendously different than the society in the North during the same period.
What did the Confederacy hope to accomplish by seceding from the Union? The clearest goal was to defend and preserve the right of Southern Whites, including the right to own slaves. While the concept of owning another human being would obviously be a moral and criminal issue today; many slaveowners either ignored or tried to justify their way out of that dimension, focusing on the economic aspects of slavery.
They held that the right to own people was a property right, just like owning land or buildings. Thus, when Northern politicians tried to ensure that new states admitted to the Union were "free-soil" i. In addition, in the minds of secessionists, the threat of national abolition not only had the potential of reducing the wealth of many prominent Southerners, but also interfered with the "property" rights of Southern Whites.
Thus, secession seemed to be the only way of preserving those rights. In addition, some secessionists were interested in preserving the "Southern way of life. In addition, some accepted the myth of the happy, subservient slave, who was not quite a human being and would benefit from the civilizing influence of Southern gentility.
At the foundation of the "Southern way of life," however, was its oppressive economic system. In addition to reducing millions of Americans to the status of chattel, it made it very difficult for non-landed, unskilled Whites to succeeded in the face of labor competition from slaves.
Part of the "Southern way of life" was the European flavor and aspirations of the planter class. This cultural influence grew out of and was fed by the long-standing mutual economic relationship between England and the South.
In order to ensure that the British market for Southern cotton remained open, Southern planters and others had to maintain relatively sizable importation of goods from Britain. At the same time, the European influence on Southern gentile society; in education, fashion, arts, and other fields; created a large demand for European imports.
An imbalance in this relationship, such as would be caused by the abolition of slavery or increases in tariffs, would have cultural implications for the South. Economics and the Union Victory Despite the advantages the Confederacy had in well-trained officers and dedication to a cause, it was inevitable that the Union would win the war.
The only hope for the Confederacy would have been that the Union would not resist secession, or that foreign nations would assist the Confederate cause. Once the Union decided to fight for unity and European nations chose to remain largely neutral, there was little long-term hope for the Confederacy. The Union's resources, although far from unlimited, were much greater than the Confederacy's resources, and would eventually last longer. The Union had more than double the population of the Confederacy including slavesand almost four times the number of men of combat age.
In addition to being more industrialized than the South see "Contrasting Economies" Sectionthe North had better infrastructure. By the time of the Civil War, an extensive railroad system had been built, with new lines through the Northwest being added.
In the South, disputes between states prevented the construction of interstate railroad systems. In all, the North had 20, miles of railroad compared to the South's 9, miles. The long-standing shipbuilding industry in New England ensured that the North would have a large merchant marine, as well as easy access to naval resources. Because of interstate conflicts, there were few continuous interstate railroad systems through the South. In addition, although there was a small Southern industry producing naval stores, there were few merchant ships or naval vessels in the South.
Economic Development is a measure of progress in a specific economy. It refers to advancements in technology, a transition from an economy based largely on agriculture to one based on industry and an improvement in living standards. The Brandt Line is shown in bold. Digital and technological divide[ edit ] World's ISS space centres The global digital divide is often characterised as corresponding to the north—south divide; however, Internet use, and especially broadband access, is now soaring in Asia compared with other continents.
This phenomenon is partially explained by the ability of many countries in Asia to leapfrog older Internet technology and infrastructure, coupled with booming economies which allow vastly more people to get online. This facilitated an uneven diffusion of technological practices since only areas with high immigration levels benefited.
North–South divide - Wikipedia
Immigration patterns in the twenty-first century continue to feed this uneven distribution of technological innovation. This invariably places greater importance on issues such as malnutrition, infectious diseases, genetic problems such as sickle cell diseases, noncommunicable diseases such as hypertension and diabetes and cultural malpractice, which have significant contributions to mortality and morbidity.
Furthermore, an increased transparency in the publishing of epidemiologic and clinical data is required to characterize study populations, with the overall aim to select future study proposals that will have the greatest impact on a population. We need not look further than the outcome of the Millennium Development Goals MDGs to reinforce the importance of data transparency.
The implementation of targets fundamentally requires true and validated baseline data. Many MDG countries, including those of relative wealth such as Nigeria, lacked any verifiable public health dataset, resulting in nonmeasurable outcomes for a widely anticipated global health project. Studies performed on well-characterized individuals may also be extremely useful if there is a degree of homogeneity between different population groups, allowing for greater clinical translation of research and collaboration between nations.
Most importantly, there must be an increased effort to translate clinical trials in the Global South and create general accessibility to the researched medications and procedures. Being mindful of underdeveloped infrastructure, modifying research questions and adapting clinical methods to those that can be integrated easily with the existing health service may provide greater efficacy and value.
The North, The South, and the Politics
Although the implementation of any medical policy that has societal consequences is complicated by inefficiency, bureaucracy and corruption in many Global Southern countries, there are encouraging examples of bioethical development in South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Conclusion The issues that form the divide between the Global North and South are deeply rooted in historical sociopolitical factors and encompass neocolonial and postcolonial aspects of dependency and exploitation.
These concepts suggest that medical globalization of clinical trials may be placing greater importance in scientific advancement than the welfare of the individuals involved, particularly in the developing world setting. Nevertheless, we have highlighted key areas that can be addressed to encourage future collaboration and improve the bioethical standards in the Global South.
Causing the Civil War
Solutions to the issues of medical globalization require a wide international input, ranging from global health institutions to the pharmaceutical industries. Most importantly, the Global South nations nations must be encouraged to take ownership of their bioethical agendas. We remain optimistic that with a global and persistent approach to this problem, the issue of medical neocolonialism and exploitation can be resolved.
Footnotes The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. Towards a common definition of global health. Ethical and scientific implications of the globalization of clinical research. N Engl J Med. Clinical trials seen shifting overseas. Int J Health Serv.
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