relationship between age and job satisfaction will continue to hold. Scholars have Theoretical and methodological considerations in the age- job satisfaction. Affect and job satisfaction: A study of the relationship at work and at home. Journal Theoretical and methodological considerations in the age-job satisfaction. moderated the relationship between age and absenteeism, while tool design moderated concluded that age and overall job satisfaction are consistently and positively 'Theoretical and methodological considerations in the age-job.
It was also reported in a study that increased job stress was associated with increased role insufficiency . Increased stress can lead to reduced job satisfaction and productivity of individuals . The present study showed that there was a significant negative relationship between role ambiguity and productivity such that increased role ambiguity would cause reduced productivity in individuals. Role ambiguity is a state during which individuals have no clear and direct understanding about their roles in the organization .
Role stressors mainly include role ambiguity and role conflict which can lead to increased employees absenteeism and frequent work delays, increase in employees' turnover and reduced workforce productivity . Increased job stress is accompanied with reduced performance and job satisfaction, which finally leads to lower productivity of individuals and increased costs incurred by the organization .
In this study, a strong interaction was reported between the workers' perceived supervisor support and productivity, in such a way that workers who were not supported by their supervisors had lower productivity as compared to those who were provided with adequate support . Limitations Regarding the cross-sectional nature of the present study and data gathering based on self-report, the findings should be considered cautiously.
In the self-report method, there may be problems will deception, denial, or recall. Additionally, in this study job stress and productivity were not examined using objective methods. The results of the study could be more conclusive if objective measures were included. Conclusion The findings of the present study showed that the employees' perceived job stress and job satisfaction were moderate-high and moderate, respectively.
Also, their productivity was assessed as moderate. Based on the study findings, to achieve lower job stress, higher job satisfaction, and productivity in the workplace, the following supportive measures are recommended: Acknowledgments This study was financially supported by Shiraz University of Medical Science grant no. The authors wish to thank all petrochemical employees who participated in this study.
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Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Age-Job Satisfaction Relationship
Whilst the Motivator-Hygiene theory was crucial in first distinguishing job satisfaction from dissatisfaction, the theory itself has received little empirical support.
As a result, subsequent attempts to test this theory have obtained mixed results with some researchers supporting it   and others not  . Job Characteristics Model The Job Characteristics Model JCM  explains that job satisfaction occurs when the work environment encourages intrinsically motivating characteristics. Five key job characteristics: Subsequently, the three psychosocial states then lead to a number of potential outcomes, including: However, it has also drawn criticism as many studies utilising this model investigate the direct impact core job dimensions have on personal and work outcomes, completely disregarding the critical psychological states .
Despite this, the JCM and its impact on job satisfaction has been the subject of three reviews   which further lend support to the model. Dispositional approach This dispositional approach suggests that job satisfaction is closely related to personality. It postulates that an individual has a strong predisposition towards a certain level of satisfaction, and that these remain fairly constant and stable across time .
The evidence for this approach can be divided into indirect studies and direct studies. Judge and colleagues   have reviewed these areas in greater detail. The indirect evidence comes from studies that do not explicitly measure personality. Data from the National Longitudinal Studies in the United States found that measures of job satisfaction tend to remain fairly stable over 2, 3 and 5 year periods . This even includes significant employment changes, such as: Interestingly, a twin based study  examined 34 twins whom had been raised independently of one another.
The indirect studies, however, are vulnerable to a number of important criticisms, namely that other unaccounted factors might be contributing to job satisfaction levels . This highlights the respective importance of studies directly assessing the role of personality. Most prominently, there is research evidence that self-esteem, self-efficacy, emotional stability and locus of control comprise a broad personality construct, which contribute to how an individual sees themselves .
A review of correlations between each of four affective constructs i. Similarly, investigations into the link between the five factor model of personality and job satisfaction revealed neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion to have a moderate relationships with job satisfaction .
Job satisfaction: theories and definitions: OSHwiki
Summary of theories Despite its past popularity, it is unfortunate that there is little empirical support for the hierarchy of needs and motivator-hygiene approaches  . On the other hand, the dispositional approach and JCM continues to grow in empirical support . However, it is difficult to deny that the motivating factors influence the surrounding environment and has an impact on how satisfied employees are in their work, and that personality or the JCM do not fully explain job satisfaction.
Findings revealed that demographic variables and scores on the five commonly used personality traits including, openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism together accounted for a significant portion of job satisfaction.
Measurement of job satisfaction Type of measurement The measurement of job satisfaction can be classified into three different methods : The single question asks only one question as an indication of how satisfied an employee is at work.
Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Age-Job Satisfaction Relationship
This is commonly found in large surveys, such as: Despite the assumption that having more questions can obtain more objective and accurate results as well as being less prone to error, research has shown that asking a single question, either on overall job satisfaction or on individual facets of job satisfaction can be equally as effective .
Proponents of this approach believe that employees generally know how happy they are, and, therefore, there is little point in asking them multiple questions about the same thing. The global measurement seeks to obtain a single score representing the overall job satisfaction an employee has .
Several questions or statements are provided relating to different aspects of the job such as, pay, work activities, working conditions and career prospectsbut combines them to provide an overall score. On the other hand, facet measurements have questions or items for these different areas and provides one score to represent each area. The availability of diverse job satisfaction measurements means those intending to measure this concept have the option of choosing a particular measure which best fits their purpose.
However, the multiple options can make comparisons difficult, while a poor choice of measurement can lead to unreliable or invalid outcomes . Issues with measurements Despite the availability of questions and measures for assessing job satisfaction, there are a few issues that need to be taken into consideration when selecting a suitable measure and when interpreting the results.
The prolific number of measures of job satisfaction has raised issues surrounding the reliability and validity of them.
This is further complicated when assessing across different cultures, languages and ages as they can all confound the results obtained. Reliability and validity The popularity of job satisfaction has lead to numerous measures being created for this concept. Unfortunately, many of them, including some by academics and practitioners, are simply not sufficiently valid or reliable . This means the measure might not accurately measure job satisfaction, or that it is not able to provide consistent results.
Van Saane and colleagues  reviewed 29 commonly used job satisfaction measures they found in the academic literature: The study found that only seven of the measures were found to have adequate validity and reliability.
Consequently, those intending to measure job satisfaction have to ensure that the measure being used has been shown to be both reliable and valid. Cross cultural issues Organisations and practitioners that work across different national and cultural boundaries have to be aware of the suitability of the chosen measure to a particular workforce .
Using a different measure for each workforce makes comparison more difficult . However, the use of the same measure across different countries can be problematic as different workforces interpret it differently. The use of any scales across national boundaries raises various issues, and users of job satisfaction scales should bear in mind how two particular issues, language and culture, might affect their results .
Language has a powerful influence on how individuals perceive their reality, as various languages bring about different labels for concepts and objects . When using a scale in two separate countries which speak the same language i. Not only does the similar language imply similar understanding, but the one language used means translation is not required. This avoids having discrepancy between the original and the translated version, which can affect the meaning of the measure; either due to a lack of compatible vocabulary or because of poor translation .
However, when a scale of the same language is administered in two different cultures it can lead to respondents with different values understanding the scale differently . Alternatively, how rating scales are interpreted is impacted by culture. Despite these issues there are job satisfaction measures that have been demonstrated to be reliable and valid across different languages and cultures.
For example, Ryan and colleagues  found similar satisfaction scores when respondents from the US and Australia completed the same measure in English. Across languages, the Nordic Employee Index  consistently assesses job satisfaction across the Nordic nations.
Similarly, Liu and colleagues  examined the German Job Satisfaction Survey filled out by employees in 18 countries, in German, English and Spanish. They found similarities across countries, which have the same language or a similar cultural background. Using a sample of over employees in the UK, Clarke and colleagues  found that job satisfaction was high amongst those in their teens, and then went down when they were between 20 and 30, increased again in their 40s to the same level as those in their teens, and progressing higher in their 50s and 60s.
Alternatively, some have shown a gradual increase in satisfaction as age increased  .