U.S.-Iran Relations: CQR
TIMELINE-U.S.-Iran relations from coup to sanctions relief U.S. hostage rescue mission ordered by President Jimmy Carter fails. From the CIA-orchestrated overthrow of Iran's prime minister to a phone Iraq, BBC News looks at more than 60 years of tricky US-Iran relations. A rescue mission ends in disaster for US troops with the deaths of eight. Here is a review of key dates which shaped Iran's relations with the US. . the use of force in dealing with Iran, saying Obama will still "preserve all his options".
Hizbollah bombings United States implicates Hizbollah, an Iranian movement formed at the time of the Iranian Revolution, in terrorist attacks against the US. Attacks included the United States embassy bombing in Beirut, Lebanon, that killed 17 Americans, and the Beirut barracks bombing which killed US peace keepers. Reagan administration confirmed that weapons had been transferred to Iran but denied they were part of an exchange for hostages.
The US says the Airbus A was mistaken for a fighter jet that was outside the civilian air corridor and was not responding to radio calls.
Clinton administration embargo A total embargo on dealings with Iran by American companies was imposed by Bill Clinton. The president warned that the proliferation of long-range missiles developed by these countries constituted terrorism and threatened the United States. Uranium development Iranian opposition group reveals that Iran is developing nuclear facilities including a uranium enrichment plant at Natanz and a heavy water reactor at Arak. The US accuses Iran of a clandestine nuclear weapons programme, which Iran denies.
Ahmadinejad becomes president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad voted to become Iran's president Ahmadinejad reaches out to President Bush Ahmadinejad sent a personal letter to President Bush to propose "new ways" to end Iran's nuclear dispute. Both Condoleezza Rice and National Security Adviser Stephen Hadley dismissed it as a negotiating ploy and publicity stunt that did not address American concerns about Iran's nuclear program.
Financial sanctions US government imposed sanctions on Bank Saderat Iran barring it from direct or indirect dealings with American financial institutions due to its reported connections with Hizbollah. Many Iranians argue that the coup and the subsequent U.
This fear was enhanced by the loss of China to communism, the uncovering of Soviet spy rings, and the start of the Korean War. ByIranians supported nationalization of the AIOC, and Parliament unanimously agreed to nationalize its holding of, what was at the time, the British Empire's largest company.
The British retaliated with an embargo on Iranian oil, which was supported by international oil companies. Over the following months, negotiations over control and compensation for the oil were deadlocked, and Iran's economy deteriorated.
President Truman pressed Britain to moderate its position in the negotiations and to not invade Iran. American policies created a feeling in Iran that the United States was on Mosaddeq 's side and optimism that the oil dispute would soon be settled with "a series of innovative proposals to settle" the dispute, giving Iran "significant amounts of economic aid".
Mosaddeq visited Washington, and the American government made "frequent statements expressing support for him. Eisenhower replaced Democratic President Harry S. Trumanthe United States helped destabilize Mosaddeq on the theory that "rising internal tensions and continued deterioration The operation initially failed, and the Shah fled to Italy, but a second attempt succeeded, and Mosaddeq was imprisoned.
According to a study of the coup headed by Mark J. Gasiorowski and Malcolm Byrne, intended "to resolve" the "controversy" over who and what were responsible, "it was geostrategic considerations, rather than a desire to destroy Mosaddeq's movement, to establish a dictatorship in Iran or to gain control over Iran's oil, that persuaded U.
In the first three weeks, the U. A US Army colonel working for the CIA was sent to Persia in September to guide local personnel in creating the organization   and in Marchthe Army colonel was "replaced with a more permanent team of five career CIA officers, including specialists in covert operations, intelligence analysis, and counterintelligence, including Major General Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf who "trained virtually all of the first generation of SAVAK personnel.
The Shah's close ties to Washington and his Modernization policies soon angered some Iranians, especially the hardcore Islamic conservatives.
Sanctions relief under the terms of the deal freed over billion dollars in frozen assets overseas for Iran and increased foreign access to the Iranian economy.
In return, Iran had to agree not to engage in activities, including research and development of a nuclear bomb. The United States withdrew from the deal in Relations in the cultural sphere remained cordial. For example, the University of Southern California received an endowed chair of petroleum engineering, and a million dollar donation was given to the George Washington University to create an Iranian Studies program.
Starting in the mids, this "weakened U.
According to scholar Homa Katouzian, this put the United States "in the contradictory position of being regarded" by the Iranian public because of the coup "as the chief architect and instructor of the regime," while "its real influence" in domestic Iranian politics and policies "declined considerably". Carter administration[ edit ] Mohammed Reza PahlaviShah of Iranshakes hands with a US Air Force general officer prior to his departure from the United States In the late s, American President Jimmy Carter emphasized human rights in his foreign policy, including the Shah's regime, which by had garnered unfavorable publicity in the international community for its human rights record.
Throughliberal opposition formed organizations and issued open letters denouncing the Shah's regime. Under the Shah's brilliant leadership Iran is an island of stability in one of the most troublesome regions of the world. There is no other state figure whom I could appreciate and like more. According to historian Nikki Keddiethe Carter administration followed "no clear policy" on Iran.
TIMELINE-U.S.-Iran relations from 1953 coup to 2016 sanctions relief
On November 4,Brzezinski called the Shah to tell him that the United States would "back him to the hilt. Michael Blumenthal complained of the Shah's emotional collapse, reporting, "You've got a zombie out there. Another scholar, sociologist Charles Kurzmanargues that, rather than being indecisive or sympathetic to the revolution, the Carter administration was consistently supportive of the Shah and urged the Iranian military to stage a "last-resort coup d'etat" even after the regime's cause was hopeless.
Iran—United States relations after The Revolutionwhich ousted the pro-American Shah and replaced him with the anti-American Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeinisurprised the United States government, its State Department and intelligence services, which "consistently underestimated the magnitude and long-term implications of this unrest".
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The Struggle for Control of Iran. Many students had read excerpts from the book and thought that the CIA would attempt to implement this countercoup strategy.
Until this point, the Carter Administration was still hoping for normal relationships with Iran, sending its National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski.
Timeline: Iran-US relations | News | Al Jazeera
The Islamic revolutionaries wished to extradite and execute the ousted Shah, and Carter refused to give him any further support or help return him to power. The Shah, suffering from terminal cancerrequested entry into the United States for treatment. The American embassy in Tehran opposed the request, as they were intent on stabilizing relations between the new interim revolutionary government of Iran and the United States. Iranians' suspicion that the Shah was actually trying to conspire against the Iranian Revolution grew; thus, this incident was often used by the Iranian revolutionaries to justify their claims that the former monarch was an American puppet, and this led to the storming of the American embassy by radical students allied with the Khomeini faction.
Timeline of tensions between Iran and the United States
Bush and other VIPs wait to welcome the former hostages to Iran home On 4 Novemberthe revolutionary group Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Lineangered that the recently deposed Shah had been allowed into the United States, occupied the American embassy in Tehran and took American diplomats hostage. The 52 American diplomats were held hostage for days. In Iran, the incident was seen by many as a blow against American influence in Iran and the liberal-moderate interim government of Prime Minister Mehdi Bazarganwho opposed the hostage taking and resigned soon after.Losing Hearts and Minds: American-Iranian Relations and International Education during the Cold War
Some Iranians were concerned that the United States may have been plotting another coup against their country in from the American embassy. The crisis ended with the signing of the Algiers Accords in Algeria on January 19,