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You just need to move forward and help your self heal the pain. Happy to love again. At first trade was tentative, but it increased dramatically, changing an agropastoralist lifestyle into one dominated by trade. Initially, the local people measured wealth and status by the number of cattle, sheep, and goats a person owned, but over time this changed, with livestock being replaced by the possession of exotic goods acquired through trade as a status symbol.
During that period three capital towns developed in the Shashe-Limpopo Valley, each larger than the previous one, culminating in Mapungubwe, the capital of a kingdom stretching from the Soutpansberg Mountains in the south northward to the Matopo Hills near Bulawayo in Zimbabwe.
At the time of Mapungubwe a system of divine kingship developed in which the royal family became physically separated from the commoners by living on top of an elongated hill with steep cliffs and a limited number of routes to the top, all of which were guarded.
Neatly built stone walls were constructed at this site. Between and a royal burial ground was excavated, containing skeletons buried with golden beads, bangles, and other ritual ornaments, including the well-known golden rhinoceros. When Mapungubwe ceased to exist, the center of power for the region moved to the Masvingo area in modern Zimbabwe, where the extensive walls of the Great Zimbabwe an ancient state settlement were built around Here the trade links were extended and the system of divine kingship was magnified, with the king living on top of the Acropolis hill.
The royal area was divided into several enclosures that were used for meeting visitors of high rank and for veneration of the tribal ancestral spirits and rainmaking.
Ivory and gold were the main trade commodities and were not made into figures or figurines for exchange purposes.
The ancient Zimbabwean state collapsed around with movements away from Great Zimbabwe to the north, west, and south. The westerly and southerly migrations are important in Venda history. The southerly migration into the Soutpansberg resulted in communities erecting small Zimbabwe-type settlements that relate to the Vhatavhatsinde and MaKwinde groups.
The westerly movement away from Great Zimbabwe led to the rise of the Khami state in the Matopo Hills. While settlement layout and interpretations were the same as in Great Zimbabwe, the building style changed from the large, high walls characteristic of Great Zimbabwe to smaller, lower, more highly decorated stone walls and terraces.
After about new trading partners appeared on the scene—the Portuguese and Dutch—who broke down the centuries-old networks that had been maintained by the Arab-Islamic traders. Portuguese documents record the customs prevalent at the time and show that the system of divine kingship was still entrenched. Portuguese chronicles refer to a walled settlement known as Danangombi, northeast of Bulawayo, where around a struggle for succession led to the breakaway of two members of the royal family and their followers.
Oral tradition among the Karanga speaks of one group moving northward while the other group went south. The second group was the Singo, who moved across the Limpopo River around and settled in the Nzhelele River valley, where they moved into an existing village, enlarged it, and named it Dzata. This became the capital, where the different clans living in the mountains were united for the first time under a single ruler.
This state of affairs lasted for about sixty years, until the death of the legendary leader Thoho-ya-Ndou Head of the Elephant. A war of succession ensued that has divided the Singo to this day. Under the former white nationalist government of South Africa, Venda was developed as a homeland that gained its "independence" in and continued to exist untilwhen under the newly elected democratic government all discriminatory laws were repealed; the Venda then reverted to being part of South Africa.
Settlements Attacks by marauders in the first part of the nineteenth century changed settlement patterns. Most chiefs and headmen relocated their villages from the low-lying regions to areas high on the mountain slopes, directly under cliffs. For protective purposes the chief's residence was located at the highest point of the village under the cliffs, royal households were placed immediately in front, and the houses of the commoners spread out lower down and in front.
This pattern continued well into the s, when diminished hostilities and new forms of government administration allowed the return of villages to the valleys; the old ones under the cliffs gradually became deserted. Villages are built around the musanda, or royal residence.
Adjacent to the musanda is the public meeting place khoro where visitors are met and court meetings, dances, and other social events are held. Houses are traditionally wattle-and-daub constructions with thatched roofs. Several houses are linked together with mud brick walls and arranged around an open central courtyard with a central fireplace where the family sits in good weather. Traditionally, homesteads were partitioned off by hedgerows, wooden palisade fences, or stone walls.
Most of the older settlements are reminiscent of miniature Great Zimbabwe ruins with their walls, stones steps, passageways, and terraces. Since the s and in particular sincedevelopment has brought changes to the villages. Villages are accessible by vehicle, with a network of dirt roads linking most of them. Two tarred roads traverse large sections of Venda, and since their construction in andvillages along their lengths have expanded dramatically, with many people moving away from the remote areas for better access to public transportation and job opportunities.
Modern building materials have replaced traditional ones in many instances. Customary homesteads are being replaced by houses of Western design, and settlement layout favors a grid system instead of the haphazard arrangement of the past.
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Most villages have access to electricity, piped water, and telephone communications. Most households in the villages maintain gardens during the summer months to grow the staple crop, maize. Other crops include pumpkins, sweet potatoes, groundnuts, sorghum, and finger millet, with the latter two grains frequently used to make beer.
Vegetable gourds marankas are grown for use as containers, scoops, or spoons. Communal land, which is held in trust by chiefs and headmen, may be used for summer crop production if permission is given. After the first and subsequent rains, women gather the new leaves and flowers of certain plants to be used as a vegetable relish maroho. There are fruit trees in most gardens; the most commonly grown fruits are mangoes, papayas, avocados, bananas, and plantains. Commercial irrigation farms have developed on a small to medium scale along many of the rivers; on those farms, vegetables are grown and orchards of mangoes, avocados, litchis, and citrus flourish.
Tea is well suited to the climate and soils of the eastern mist belt of the Soutpansberg Mountains, and around 2, pounds 1 million kilograms of tea is produced annually for blending with imported Ceylon teas. Informal markets exist in the main towns and along the major roads where women sell fruit and vegetables that are produced in Venda or come from the neighboring Levubu commercial farms.
Animal husbandry was traditionally limited but is on the increase, with many royal families building up large herds of cattle and goats.
Tourism is becoming a major currency earner, and the unique culture of the Venda and the beautiful scenery are attracting many overseas visitors. The early Zimbabwe-style stone-walled archaeological sites are particularly popular with tourists.
Woodcarving, traditional pottery, baskets, and beadwork are the main Venda handicrafts and are sold locally to tourists or sent to the major cities in South Africa, where there are large markets for these items.
Mat weaving by hand using traditional motifs is commercially practiced. The traditional brightly colored clothing of Venda women has become a home industry in many villages. As a general rule, women work with clay and soil and men work with animals and wood, but there are exceptions, such as women collecting firewood as part of their domestic duties. Hand hoeing of land in preparation for planting and keeping the land clear of weeds are the work of women, but in commercial operations the mechanical preparation of land by means of cattle-drawn plows or tractors is a man's job, as is crop spraying.
All land is communal under the trusteeship of the chief, who allocates the use of land in the interests of his community. The fact that these chiefs do not have title deeds to the land that they traditionally claim has led the government to state that such communal land is state-owned and that the state need not pay royalties to the chief and his community for using resources on communal property. Kinship Kin Groups and Descent. Descent is unilineal through the male line, with one complicated and rare exception: In cases where a woman has married a wife or wives and children are born fathered by the spouse's husband or other men she has allowed to sleep with her wivestechnically, descent is on the female side.
However, in practice the spouse is metaphorically seen as the "husband" because she married the wives and thus is addressed as "father" by the children; descent therefore is still on the "male" side. Kinship terminology is similar to that in the Iroquois system.
The father's sister, however, has a higher status than is customary in that system. Marriage and Family Marriage. Cross-cousin marriages are preferred but not compulsory, and a young man's choice of a wife may differ from that of his parents. If a girl vehemently dislikes the man to whom she is betrothed, subject to the consent of the man, the betrothal may be broken and other arrangements made. Bargaining, usually through a third person, about the bride-price and marriage arrangements can take a long time.
With more young persons moving to the major industrial towns and cities, traditional marriage practices are diminishing, with young men and women marrying for love.
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Cross-cultural marriages have become more common. Polygyny is practiced; the number of wives depends on the wealth and status of the husband. The higher a man's traditional status is, the more wives he can marry. Chiefs and headmen generally are wealthier than commoners, and for them caring for multiple wives is seldom a problem, with headmen having up to six wives and chiefs being entitled to many more.
A wealthy commoner may marry more than one wife, as tends to occur with businessmen. Men past the age of fifty frequently take a young woman as a wife to bear children and take care of them in their old age.
An unusual form of marriage occurs when a wealthy woman, normally a headwoman, marries a wife or wives. She usually is already married to a man. Her husband or other chosen men may be the biological fathers of the children who are born, but metaphorically she is the "father" of those children.
The children must address her as "father," while her biological children call her their mother. A new wife is expected to live with her mother-in-law, who teaches her about her husband's likes and dislikes and his family.
This continues until the birth of the first child, when she moves into her own house close by. Marital residence thus is patrilocal. A household has one wife and her offspring, who share a single hearth and eat together. In polygynous marriages each wife is given her own house and courtyard, which is physically separate from those of the other wives. The husband has his own sleeping area pfamowhich is usually adjacent to the household of the senior wife, who keeps order among the other wives.
The husband's relatives generally live in the surrounding homesteads, and this system gives children access to their aunts and uncles. Traditionally, all land is communal, under the trusteeship of the chief. However, every man has indisputable rights to the land he occupies and uses. His sons are entitled to the use of his land but may also ask the local headman to allocate fresh portions of land. Movable property—livestock, household utensils, and the proceeds of agriculture and trade—passes to the oldest son or, in the case of a polygynous marriage, the oldest son of the senior wife.
This son becomes the undisputed head of the family unless he has disgraced himself in the eyes of the family, in which case the son next in line is appointed by the deceased's oldest sister with the consent of his brothers.
A woman may possess property, normally the surplus proceeds of her labors, and may dispose of it freely. Usually in the case of her death, her youngest son inherits. In a polygynous marriage, if the senior wife does not have a male heir, the oldest daughter is recognized as the legal heir but may not become the head of the family; that duty usually passes to her late father's oldest surviving brother.
An exception to this practice occurs when a woman marries wives and no male heir is born; then the oldest daughter becomes the head of that family. Brothers may inherit the wives of a deceased man. Infants and children are looked after by their parents and grandparents as well as by uncles and aunts who frequently assume the duties of parents in loco.
Children frequently refer to these relatives as their father and mother. Children are introduced to responsibility and preparation for their later roles in life at an early age, with boys being sent out to herd goats at about the age of five and girls accompanying their mothers or aunts to collect water or firewood or caring for their baby brothers or sisters while the mother is working on the land.
There is always sufficient time for play after the allotted tasks are correctly done. Corporal punishment is rare. Sociopolitical Organization Social Organization.
Positions of traditional leadership are hereditary, passing normally from the father to the oldest son of the senior wife. At the death of the father, it is the duty of his oldest sister makhadzi to introduce the heir to the family or suggest a new heir if that son proves to be incapable. If the heir is too young to become the head of the family, she fulfills that role as a regent.