Dimesions of film sound
Rhythm involves a beat or pulse a pace or tempo and a pattern of accents or the rhythms of editing, of movement within the image, any of sound all cooperate. A transition between two shots during which the first image gradually disappears A shot, usually involving a distant framing, that shows the spatial relations . Rhythmic factors include beat (or pulse), accent (or stress), and tempo (or pace). of montage that included montage within the shot, between sound and image, . the multiplier effect of sound and visual image being brought together.” It. using an effective score and giving dialogue a sense of pacing.
The evolution of pace in popular movies
Planning your sound design right from day one of script-writing means you can lend each environment a greater sense of identity, more meticulously plan your shots and overall make sound an active player in the development of your narrative. The sound of birds chirping.
Wind and humid air beating down on the isolated train station — and an innocently creaking windmill. This seemingly innocuous windmill becomes the connective tissue for the rest of the scene. As our three gunmen lounge by the side of the tracks, we sink into a familiar ease with the surrounding atmosphere. Then, eight minutes into the film, the fated train arrives with a loud rumble and almost all other sounds disappear. Attention, Emotion, Evolution, Film style, Movies, Narrative, Pace, Popular culture Significance Experiments in cognitive psychology have shown us that rapid changes in the visual field attract our eye movements and attention.
This has been demonstrated many times in the laboratory see, for example, Theeuwes, and also when people watch movie clips Smith, Rapid transients cutsmotion changes, and luminance changes have been endemic to movies for a century, and they are components of what film editors call pace.
Nonetheless, it has taken most of that century for filmmakers to learn to fashion their tools of film style, creating a film form that couples these three physical changes and their psychological implications to narrative structure. Moreover, throughout the intervening century, movies have never lost their grip on popular culture, and, with mobile technologies, they have become more prevalent than ever.
The British Film Institutep. Although this estimate seems overly enthusiastic, it bespeaks an impressive penetration of film media into everyday life. Popular films have become mind candy.IB Film: Video Essay - Rhythmic Relations
Heretofore, however, there have been no treatments of the psychologically relevant changes in these variables as they are arrayed over the length of entire films. This article considers three dynamic patterns that are now meshed with psychological principles of attention and emotion. Before addressing them, however, let me establish some important terms from the filmmaking and film studies literatures that are pertinent to this discussion.
The evolution of pace in popular movies
Terms Film style is the collection of all aspects of the craft of making movies. Filmmakers make choices about editing varying the length and ordering shotsstaging positioning actors in front of the camera and controlling the setting behind themframing how much of the actors versus the background can be seen in the image, called shot scalesound controlling conversation, background noise, sound effects, and diegetic versus nondiegetic [background] musiccamera motion, lighting, focus, color, and more.
None of these implications is intended here. The syuzhet is the film-length, presentational, content-free form of the movie selected from among the panoply of possibilities within film style.
Constructing Narrative through Sound Design
Fabula is the Russian Formalist term for the underlying story. The most common other terms used in this context are narrative Bordwell, and, of course, story Chatman, Story and narrative are perfectly acceptable synonyms, so I will use them here as well. The fabula is all about content. Importantly, just as the art of writing a novel is in the conversion of ideas into words on a page, Shklovsky suggested that the art of filmmaking is in the conversion of the fabula into the syuzhet Schmid,p.
Pace and rhythm are both words used in discussions of editing. Griffith, the esteemed early American filmmaker, may have been first to discuss pace in the context of movies. Beyond this flowery prose and other than some concrete suggestions about shot duration and some oblique references to motion, Griffith was a little vague about what he meant by pace.
Pearlmanp. Bordwell and Thompsonp. Tempo, of course, is about time and timing, but it is also more.
As Raop. Murch strongly endorsed the centrality of emotion to editing. An Academy Award-winning editor and sound designer, Murch suggested that the foremost consideration in editing is that every shot must be true to the emotional force of the narrative. This allegiance takes precedence over advancing the story, rhythmic considerations, or any concern with other attributes of film style. More importantly, this has also been found for people watching short movies Tarvainen et al. Sections of the narrative Again, narratives are stories.
All stories tend to be divisible into parts, often at different levels. At one level, these parts can be called events, sometimes coarse-level events Zacks et al. In movies, these are typically story units called scenes that take place in a given location, with particular characters, within a constrained amount of time Cutting, aand that time is typically in the domain of a minute or longer.
But there is also a superordinate structure to narratives. WIPE A transition betwen shots in which a line passes across the screen, eliminating the first shot as it goes and replacing it with the next one. A very dynamic and noticeable transition, it is usually employed in action or adventure films. It often suggest a brief temporal ellypsis and a direct connection between the two images.
As other transitions devices, like the whip panwipes became fashionable at an specific historical time the s and sso much so as to became stylistic markers of the film of the period.
That connection can be inferred from the situation portrayed in the scene for example, graphic match. If the person looks left, the following shot should imply that the looker is offscreen right. First we see her looking… then we see what she looks at. As this example demonstrates, eyeline matches can be a very persuasive tool to construct space in a film, real or imagined.
Graphic matches can also be used to make metaphorical associations, as in Soviet continuity style. Here is an example from Traffic Steven Soderbergh, Your browser does not support the video tag.
A match on action adds variety and dynamism to a scene, since it conveys two movements: The decision to extend a shot can be as significant as the decision to cut it.
Editing can affect the experience of time in the cinema by creating a gap between screen time and diegetic time overlapping editing or by establishing a fast or slow rhythm for the scene. The average lenght per shot differs greatly for different times and places, but most contemporary films tend to have faster editing rates.
In general lines, any shot above one minute can be considered a long take. Unless shot at a fixed angle, with a fixed camera and no movement, long takes are extremely hard to shoot. They have to be choreographed and rehearsed to the last detail, since any error would make it necessary to start all over again from scratch. Sophisticated long takes such as this one from The Player, which includes all kinds of camera zoomsare often seen as rhythm. Depending on how much movement is included, a long take can make a film tense, stagnant and spell-binding, or daring, flowing and carefree.
Indeed, directors like Altman, Welles, Renoir, Angelopoulos, Tarkovski or Mizoguchi have made long takes usually in combination with deep space an essential part of their film styles. Most commonly associated with experimental filmmmaking, due to its temporally disconcerting and purely graphic nature, it is also featured in films in which action and movement take precedence over plot and dialogue: Overlapping editing is a common characteristic of the frenzied Hong Kong action films of the 80s and 90s.
- Part 4: Editing
When director John Woo moved to Hollywood, he tried to incorporate some of that style into mainstream action films, such as Mission: Rhythmic factors include beat or pulseaccent or stressand tempo or pace. Rhythm is one of the essential features of a film, for it decisively contributes to its mood and overall impression on the spectator.
It is also one of the most complex to analyze, since it is achieved through the combination of mise-en-scene, cinematography, sound and editing.
Indeed, rhythm can be understood as the final balance all of the elements of a film. Let us compare how rhythm can radically alter the treatment of a similar scene.
These two clips from Deconstructing Harry Woody Allen, and Cries and Whispers Viskingar Och Rop, Ingmar Bergman, Sweden feature a couple at a table, and both clips feature a moment of fracture between the two characters.
Still, they could not be more dissimilar.