Henri Bergson Hide. French philosopher. Henri Bergson jpg. Wikipedia-logo- Michał Bergson. Award received. Nobel Prize in. Henri Bergson was born in Paris in and died there in His mother was Anglo-Irish and his father Polish and an accomplished musician. Bergson uses. Henri Bergson’s doctoral thesis was published in France in , and much later translated into English () under the title Time and Free Will. It contained.

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When we look at a flock of sheep, what we notice berfson that they all look alike. But, with this creative movement, which is memory, we can turn to creative evolution. Regarded from this new point of view, the idea of spontaneity is indisputably simpler than that of inertia, since bergsoj second can be understood and defined only by means of the first, while the first is self-sufficient.

III that thought in itself would never have thought it possible for the human being to swim, as it cannot deduce swimming from walking.

Grand Cross of the Beegson of Honour. An Introduction to Metaphysics. Bergson had spent years of research in preparation for each of his three large works. An Introduction to Metaphysicspages to To have complete access to the thousands of philosophy articles on this site, please.

Socrates, Plato—taking them together—Descartes, Kant, and Bergson. While the relationship between consciousness and matter instantiated in the instinct of animals is sufficient and well adapted to their survival from the point of view of the specieshumans are not adequately equipped in this respect; hence the necessity of something like intelligence, defined by the ability to make tools.

Meanwhile, he had undertaken the study of the relation between mind and body. The idea of spontaneity simpler than inertia. As, moreover, the principle of the conservation of energy has been assumed to admit of no exception, there is not an atom, either in the nervous system or in the whole of the universe, whose position is not determined by the sum of the mechanical actions which the other atoms exert upon it.


His influence among philosophers has been greatest in France, but it has also been felt in the United States and Great Angi, especially in the work of William James; George Anir and Alfred North Whiteheadthe other great process metaphysician of the 20th century. It lends us its own gergson instead of borrowing from us our flexibility. Bergson starts out by showing that the only way in which the two senses of life may be reconciled without being collapsed is to examine real life, the real evolution of the species, that is, the phenomenon of change and its profound causes.

There is the closed morality, whose religion is static, and there is the open morality, whose religion is dynamic. By now we would have had an environmentally-friendly form of global politics that we can barely imagine.

One should make the effort to reverse the habitual mode of intelligence and set oneself up immediately in the duration.

One quickly thinks of bees, and Bergson, of course, refers to them. After this it would be absurd to consider time, even our time, as a cause of gain or loss, as a concrete reality, or a force in its own way.

Pure memory is something else, and here we encounter Bergson’s bergsob or infamous image of the memory cone. We shall return to this concept of virtuality below. He once speculated on how things might have developed had modern science devoted more attention to exploring the non-material realm.

Henri Bergson (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Thinking, for Bergson, occurs when pure memory moves forward into singular images. And thus, even though we cannot know all durations, every single one that comes into existence must be related, as a part, to the others. The reasons behind the decision to focus on work other than relativity were directly traced to what Bergson said that day in Paris.


Bergson’s great popularity created a controversy in France where his views were seen as opposing the secular and scientific attitude adopted by the Republic’s officials.

Indeed it is even conceivable that this consciousness could live so slow and lazy a life as to take in the whole path of the heavenly body in a single perception, just as we do when we perceive the successive positions of a shooting star as one line of fire. Gide even went so far as to say that future historians will overestimate Bergson’s influence on art and philosophy just because he was the self-appointed spokesman for “the spirit of the age”. If we can circle back for a moment, although Bergson shows that we perceive things in the things, the necessary poverty of perception means that it cannot define intuition.

Like Bergson’s, his writings were placed on the Index by the Vatican.

Henri Bergson

This, Bergson argued, shows that it is not memory as such that is lost, but the bodily mechanism that is needed to express it. Wnri Deleuze’s interpretation is correct, the confrontation that Duration and Simultaneity develops is not one between Bergson and Einstein but a confrontation between Bergson’s interpretation of multiplicities and Riemann’s interpretation of multiplicity, Riemann’s interpretation being, according to Deleuze, the basis of Einstein’s theory Deleuze,pp.

While past time is neither a gain nor a loss for a system assumed to be conservative, it may be a gain for the living being, and it is indisputably one for the conscious being. According to Einstein, philosophy had been nari to explain the relation between psychology and physics. On this force we have today taken no hold precisely because our science of mind is in its infancy