The Journal of Dental Hygiene. Halitosis: A Review of Current Literature. Brenda L. Armstrong Key Words: halitosis, oral malodor, bad breath, assessment. Halitosis is known as bad breath that emanates from the oral cavity either intra- oral .. Canadian Dental Association/L’Association Dentaire Canadienne Journal. Click here to view optimized website for mobile devices Journal is Halitosis or oral malodor is an offensive odor originating from the oral.

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Halitosis: From diagnosis to management

Real halitosiss has oral and extra-oral etiologies and the pathophysiology involves interaction of anaerobic microbes mainly with the proteins present in the oral cavity fluids and contents, resulting in production of volatile sulfur compounds VSCs.

J Clin Periodontol ; Efficacy of a halitosiss oil: Oral surgery, oral medicine, and oral pathology. Winkel Corresponding Author Edwin G. Effect of photodynamic therapy in the reduction of halitosis in patients with multiple sclerosis: Oral findings and health status among hospitalized patients with physical disabilities, aged 60 or above.

Otolaryngologic clinics of North America.

Halitosis: a review article

Halitosis and gastroesophageal reflux disease: Its protective function is mainly due to cleansing action causing constant removal of bacteria and food debris, and the anti-bacterial property is attributed to jalitosis presence of salivary Ig A, lysozyme, lactoferrin, and several glycoproteins.


J Clin Dent ; The intensity of sulfur compounds is increased because of salivary flow reduction or xerostomia. Gas chromatography Measurement with the gas chromatography method is considered to be highly objective, reproducible, and reliable.

It separates and analyzes compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition; samples are collected from saliva, tongue coating, or expired breath.

Introduction to Clinical Microbiology for the General Dentist.

Halitosis – An overview: Part-I – Classification, etiology, and pathophysiology of halitosis

The antimicrobial activity of alpha-bisabolol and tea tree oil against Solobacterium mooreia Gram-positive bacterium associated with halitosis. Guidance on which type and size of interdental brush to use is best provided as part of routine dental care [10].

Different medical conditions, impart different odor on the patient’s breath. J Postgrad Med ; What Is the Trul Braz Oral Res ; The sensitivity and specificity of the sulfide monitor is less than the gas chromatography but correlations of measurements are highly significant.

Effectiveness of mechanical tongue cleaning on oral levels of volatile sulfur compounds. The Journal of clinical dentistry. How related jurrnal they? In this method, measurements are performed and equipped with a flame photometric detector or by producing mass spectra.

Halitosis: From diagnosis to management

Then patients use special mouth rinse for 30 s and close the mouth for 5 min. BMJ Clin Evid ; Malodor can arise from the patients even with good oral hygiene and the source is from the posterior dorsal tongue,[ 9 ] as the large, papillary surface area of the dorsum of tongue can retain large amounts of desquamated cells, leukocytes, salivary constituents, and microorganisms and can facilitate putrefaction.


The relationship between the presence of periodontopathogenic bacteria in saliva and halitosis. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. Prevalence of halitosis in the population of the city of Bern, Switzerland: A diagnostic marker for spirochetes and periodontal disease?

Ammonia monitoring Besides VSCs, ammonia is another important factor in halitosis. Proper brush, dental floss, and inter-dental brush usage are very important. A review of current literature.

J Clin Pediatr Dent. It is significant to highlight the necessity of an interdisciplinary method for the treatment of halitosis to prevent misdiagnosis or unnecessary treatment. These volatile compounds are sulfur compounds, aromatic halitosus, nitrogen-containing compounds, amines, short-chain fatty acids, alcohols or phenyl compounds, aliphatic compounds, and ketones [ Table 1 ].