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The black-eyed peablack-eyed bean or goat peaa legumeis a subspecies of the cowpeagrown around the world for its medium-sized, edible bean. The common commercial variety is called the California Blackeye ; it is pale-colored with a prominent black spot.
In the American South there are countless varieties, many of them heirloomthat vary in size from the small lady peas to very large ones, as may be seen in the state and municipal farmers’ markets. The color of the eye may be black, brown, red, pink or green. All the peas are green when freshly shelled and brown or buff when dried. A popular variation of the black-eyed pea is the purple hull pea ; it is usually green with a prominent purple or pink spot.
The currently accepted botanical name for the black-eyed pea is Vigna unguiculata subsp. Other beans of somewhat similar appearance, such as the frijol ojo de cabra goat’s eye bean of northern Mexicoare sometimes incorrectly called black-eyed peas, and vice versa. The first domestication probably occurred in West Africa,  but the black-eyed pea is widely grown in many countries in Asia ; it was introduced into the Southern United States as early as the 17th century in Virginia.
Most of the black-eyed pea cultivation in the region, however, took firmer hold in Florida and the Carolinas during the 18th century, reaching Virginia in full force following the American Revolution. Throughout the South, the black-eyed pea is still a widely used ingredient in soul food and cuisines of the Southern United States. The planting of crops of black-eyed peas was promoted by George Washington Carver because, as a legumeit adds nitrogen to the soil and has high nutritional value.
This heat-loving crop should be sown after all danger of frost has passed and the soil is warm. Seeds sown too early will rot before germination. Black-eyed peas are extremely drought tolerant, so excessive watering should be avoided.
The crop is relatively free of pests and disease. Root-knot nematodes can be a problem, especially if crops are not rotated.
As a nitrogen-fixing legume, fertilization can exclude nitrogen three weeks after germination. The blossom produces nectar plentifully, and large areas can be a source of honey. Because the bloom attracts a variety of pollinatorscare must be taken in the application of insecticides to avoid label violations.
In the Southern United Stateseating black-eyed peas or Hoppin’ John a traditional soul food on New Year’s Day is thought to bring prosperity in the new year. The traditional meal also includes collardturnipor mustard greensand ham. The peas, since they swell when cooked, symbolize prosperity; the greens symbolize money; the pork, because pigs root forward when foraging, represents positive motion. There are several legends as to the origin of this custom.
The first is associated with General William T. Stories say peas and salted pork were said to have been left untouched, because of the belief that they were animal food unfit for human consumption.
Southerners considered themselves lucky to be left with some supplies to help them survive the winter, and black-eyed peas evolved into a representation of good luck.
One challenge to this legend is that General Sherman brought backup supplies with him including three days of animal feed  and would have been unlikely to have left even animal feed untouched. In addition, the dates of the first average frost for Atlanta and Savannah, respectively, are November 13 and November In another Southern tradition, black-eyed peas was a symbol of emancipation for African-Americans who had previously been enslaved, and who after the Civil War were officially freed on New Years Day.
In Egyptblack-eyed peas are called lobia. Cooked with onions, garlic, meat, and tomato juice, and served with Egyptian rice with some pastina called shaerya mixed in, it makes the most famous rice dish in Egypt. In JordanLebanonand Syrialobya or green black-eyed-beans are cooked with onion, garlic, tomatoes, peeled and chopped, olive oil, salt and black pepper.
The mixture is then fried. In Indonesiablack-eyed peas are called kacang tunggak or kacang tolo in the local language. They are commonly used in curry dishes such as sambal gorenga kind of hot and spicy red curry dish, sayur brongkosor sayur lodeh.
In North Indiablack-eyed peas are called lobia or rongi and cooked like daalserved with boiled rice. In Karnataka they are called alsande kalu and used in the preparation of hulia popular type of curry.
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In Tamil Nadu they are called karamani and used in various recipes, including being boiled and made into a salad-like sundal often during the Ganesh Chaturthi and Navratri festivals.
In Portugalblack-eyed peas are served with boiled cod and potatoeswith tunaand in salads. Texas caviaranother traditional dish in the American South, is made from black-eyed peas marinated in vinaigrette -style dressing and chopped garlic. In Brazil ‘s northeastern state of Bahiaespecially in the city of Salvadorblack-eyed peas are used in a traditional street food of Nigerian origin called akara.
The beans are immersed in water for a few hours to loosen their skins and soften them. The skins are then removed either by hand or with the help of a manual grinder. Once the skins are removed, the bean is ground or blended, and eggs are added, which produces a soft mix.
The mix is fried in hot oil. It makes a nutritious breakfast meal. In GuyanaSouth Americaand Trinidad and Tobagoit is one of the most popular type of too cooked with rice, the main one being red kidney beansalso referred to as red beans.
It is also cooked as a snack or appetizer on its own. The dish comprises rice, black-eyed peas, and other peas and a variety of meats cooked in coconut milk and seasonings. According to tradition, cook-up rice should be the first thing consumed in the New Year for good luck. Cook-up rice is also made as an everyday dish.
Kacang tunggak – Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Black-eyed pea disambiguation. Food portal Agriculture and Agronomy portal. California State University Northridge.
Archived from the original on New Year’s meal means good luck, good eats”. Archived from the original on October 24, Retrieved 7 January The New York Times. Food Culture in the Caribbean.