1. Basic Concepts of Measurement - Statistics in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition [Book]
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can They enable unambiguous comparisons between measurements. standards of measurement evolved so that communities would have certain Units of measurement are generally defined on a scientific basis, overseen by. With that preface out of the way, we can now get down to the business of discussing measurement. Scales of measurement refer to ways in which variables/numbers are defined series of relationships or rank order. Individuals competing. Any number of things can motivate CEOs—peer recognition, for example, and even a desire to change the world. In fact, CEOs usually have all the money they .
A link is abbreviated "lk," and links "lks" in old deeds and land surveys done for the government.
Statistics in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition by Sarah Boslaugh
Time Time is an abstract measurement of elemental changes over a non spatial continuum. It is an apparently irreversible series of occurrences within this non spatial continuum. It is also used to denote an interval between two relative points on this continuum.
Weighing scale Mass refers to the intrinsic property of all material objects to resist changes in their momentum. Weight, on the other hand, refers to the downward force produced when a mass is in a gravitational field.
In free fallno net gravitational forces objects lack weight but retain their mass. The Imperial units of mass include the ouncepoundand ton.
The metric units gram and kilogram are units of mass. One device for measuring weight or mass is called a weighing scale or, often, simply a scale. A spring scale measures force but not mass, a balance compares weight, both require a gravitational field to operate.
Some of the most accurate instruments for measuring weight or mass are based on load cells with a digital read-out, but require a gravitational field to function and would not work in free fall.
Survey methodology In the field of survey research, measures are taken from individual attitudes, values, and behavior using questionnaires as a measurement instrument. As all other measurements, measurement in survey research is also vulnerable to measurement errori.
In order to get accurate results, when measurement errors appear, the results need to be corrected for measurement errors. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message Since accurate measurement is essential in many fields, and since all measurements are necessarily approximations, a great deal of effort must be taken to make measurements as accurate as possible.
Using physics, it can be shown that, in the gravitational field of the Earth, it should take any object about 0. However, the following are just some of the sources of error that arise: This computation used for the acceleration of gravity 9. But this measurement is not exact, but only precise to two significant digits. The Earth's gravitational field varies slightly depending on height above sea level and other factors. No ordering of the cases is implied. For example, jersey numbers in basketball are measures at the nominal level.
Statistical Language - Correlation and Causation
A player with number 30 is not more of anything than a player with number 15, and is certainly not twice whatever number 15 is. In ordinal measurement the attributes can be rank-ordered. Here, distances between attributes do not have any meaning. In this measure, higher numbers mean more education.
Statistics in a Nutshell by Sarah Boslaugh, Paul Andrew Watters
But is distance from 0 to 1 same as 3 to 4? The interval between values is not interpretable in an ordinal measure. In interval measurement the distance between attributes does have meaning. For example, when we measure temperature in Fahrenheitthe distance from is same as distance from The interval between values is interpretable.
Because of this, it makes sense to compute an average of an interval variable, where it doesn't make sense to do so for ordinal scales. But note that in interval measurement ratios don't make any sense - 80 degrees is not twice as hot as 40 degrees although the attribute value is twice as large. Finally, in ratio measurement there is always an absolute zero that is meaningful.
This means that you can construct a meaningful fraction or ratio with a ratio variable. Weight is a ratio variable. In applied social research most "count" variables are ratio, for example, the number of clients in past six months.
Because you can have zero clients and because it is meaningful to say that " At lower levels of measurement, assumptions tend to be less restrictive and data analyses tend to be less sensitive.