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Lake Braddock Secondary School CoEd Varsity Swim & Dive Winter Photo Gallery

kecoughtan invitational swim meet 2013 spike

Now the sun was male and the moon was female and they met once a month. . on the contrary, they invite any one to share it and display as much love as if they would .. Being but six seamen in company, he went down the river to Kecoughtan, jump into the water, dive to the bottom, come up again, and swim about. spiked heels. Motorized Continental Breakfast included daily • Outdoor Pool . EPA CARB 3 STAR European Union • 15% better fuel economy you may take a tour in a Kecoughtan We invite you to call us for. Boys Swimming and Diving 13 photos VAHS at State Regional Track Meet - 05/13/ 11 photos Swimming Kecoughtan Inv. . XC - Third Battle Invitational @ Millbrook: by L. Davis. .. Spiked Shoe XC Festival.

The lower county to retaine the name of Lancaster and the upper county to be named Rappahannock. The "Northern Neck of Virginia," now containing five counties: Lancaster, formed infrom Northumberland, named in honor of Lancaster in England.

It originally comprised the whole "Neck of land between Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers. By an Act of Assembly in June,it was felony to settle outside of certain limits without permission of the governor and council.

It provided "That the Rappahannock River should remain unseated for divers reasons therein contained, notwithstanding it should and might be lawful for all persons to assume grants for lands there," etc.

A similar act to that of June, was passed inbut in October,it was reviation of Secacaconies, an Indian tribe once located on that stream. The first public official announcement of the name of Northumberland occurs in the 9th Act of Assembly, February,providing for the erection of three forts, viz.: And be it explained and confirmed by the authorities that the associating counties on the south side of the river are hereby to contribute towards the maintainance of the Indian War on that side, without any expectation of any contribution from the north side, and so likewise on the north side by themselves including Northampton and Northumberland.

The earliest court records now in the clerk's office of that county are dated Some of the court records were burned many years ago, therefore it is not known what dates the records bore which were destroyed.

The old books are bound with oak board backs, covered with heavy leather. They contain much of interest in the matter of curious wills, and surprising items relating to the sentences imposed by the courts for offenses stated in the plainest words of the English languagewhich under the present day ruling of the courts would meet with less rigorous punishment. Richmond County, formed infrom old Rappahannock, named in honor of Duke of Richmond.

Westmoreland County, formed infrom Northumberland, named after Westmoreland in England. The first mention of Westmoreland County is in an Act of Assembly of July,by which "It is ordered that the bounds of the County of Westmoreland be as follows, via.: Cole liven, and so upwards to the falls of the great river Pawtomake, above Nescostines towne. Westmoreland County under this Act extended to "the falls of the Potomac," which would include the territory now comprising the counties of King George, Stafford, Prince William, Fairfax and Alexandria.

These five counties are formed within a peninsula, the southern and eastern boundaries being the mouths of the Rappahannock, and Potomac rivers. The city of Fredericksburg is in Spotsylvania County, and lies on the southern banks of the Rappahannock, at the "falls" of that river-the head of tidewater of that stream.

The original "Northern Neck of Virginia" distinguishes this peninsula as being once the seat of the largest individual land holdings ever in America.

He came to Virginia in to look after thin estate. When Fairfax discovered that the Potomac River headed in the Allegheny Mountains he went to England and instituted his petition in the Court of the Dings Bench for extending his grant into the, Allegheny Mountains, so as to include the territory now composing the counties of Page, Shenandoah, and Frederick, in Virginia, and Hardy, Hampshire, Morgan, Berkeley, and Jefferson, now in West Virginia.

A compromise was effected between Fairfax and the Crown, in which it was stipulated that the holders of lands, under what then were called "Kings grants," were to be quieted in their right of possession. Fairfax, under certain pretexts took it upon him self to grant away large quantities of these Crown granted lands to individuals other than those occupying or claiming them under the Crown grants, and thereby produced numerous lawsuits.

His title was disputed on every hand. The northern boundary wan disputed by the Maryland proprietary, and his eastern and southern boundaries were disputed by many settlers upon it. On the Maryland side the question was which of the two head streams of the Potomac was intended to be the northern boundary of Lord Culpeper's purchase in In Virginia the dispute was concerning the grants to settlers east of the Alleghanies, and also as to which of the two head streams of the Rappahannock was the Fairfax limits: On a petition of Lord Fairfax, the King appointed a "Commission" for running out and marking the limits of his patent.

Lord Fairfax opened an office in the county-Fairfax-which was named in his honor. There he granted out his lands until a few years thereafter when he removed to Frederick County, and settled at a place he called "Greenway Court," twelve or fourteen miles southeast of Winchester, where he led a sort of hermit life, and kept his office during the remainder of his life.

He died December 12,soon after hearing of the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. It is said that as soon as he learned of the capture of Cornwallis and his army, he called his servant to assist him to bed, observing: His body was deposited under the Communion table in the then Episcopal church in Winchester. The lands were granted by Fairfax in fee simple to his tenants, subject to an annual rent of two shillings sterling 'per hundred acres, added to which he required the payment of ten shillings sterling on each fifty acres, which he termed "composition money," and which was to be paid upon the issuing of the grant.

In the legislature of Virginia passed an Act, in which among other provisions, in relation to the Northern Neck, is the following: Within its borders were born some of the most illustrious men, who were conspicuous in the shaping of the destinies of the American people.

Of the seven Presidents of the United States who were born in Virginia, but two of them were born outside of the tidewater section: She died at Mt. Vernon, Fairfax County, August 25, It extends from the Chesapeake Bay shores to the head of tidewater, upon the Rappahannock River; a distance of more than miles. Tidewater Virginia extends beyond the confines of the counties named as being within the nine peninsulas herein mentioned.

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It also includes the five counties on the upper tidewater section of the Potomac River, to "the falls," viz.: Stafford, formed infrom Westmoreland, named in honor of Lord Stafford. Alexandria County, was originally a part of Fairfax county, and was ceded to the United States, to become a part of the District of Columbia for the seat of the Federal Government.

In it was retroceded to Virginia, and organized as a county. These five counties are by some authorities assigned to the "Tidewater Divisions," and by others they are classed as being in the "Middle Virginia" section.

They are intersected by tidal streams through their lands, the greater part of which is on the fresh water section of tidewater. The soil of Tidewater Virginia is variable in its formation and fertility. The lands at the mouths of the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers are low, and composed mainly of sand and clay, devoid of stones or rocks. As the lands advance up the "Northern Neck," there is evidence of pebbles, cobble stones, and finally a rocky formation appears upon their surface.

On "the ridge" -the central region between the rivers, Rappahannock and Potomac-is found the least fertile of all its soils. Such is the case in all of the peninsulas, as one goes from the east to the west.

On the ridges can be seen bare sand hills free from vegetation even during the season of verdure on the surrounding lands, and seamed into unshapely galleys by the rains and snows of centuries. In these sections can be found log cabins, and "slab" dwellings and outhouses, and "pine brush arbor cuppens" shelters for cattle. Fortunately there is but a small percentage of this character of land in old Virginia. Its loss of fertility is due mainly to the improvident and neglectful modes of cultivation practiced in the early years, by taking everything off the land and returning nothing to it.

These poor lands when "turned out" grow good pine, and oak timber on the higher parts, and poplar and other woods in and around the galleys.

The lands on the sides of the ridges sloping gradually down to the rivers, present evidence of greater fertility, especially as they reach what is known as the "river bottom lands. Some of these old time dwelling houses are fine specimens of the architecture and splendor of their period.

There are several of these old time dwellings yet standing along the James, York, Potomac and Rappahannock rivers. Among the number is "Stratford," the birthplace of General Robert E. Lee, in Westmoreland County. This dwelling and many of the outhouses-former servants quarters-are built of brick, and are yet in a good state of preservation.

From the upper part of this dwelling house a beautiful view can be had of the Potomac River, and surrounding streams, and woodlands. The original tract contained nearly acres. A part of it is yet in the possession of a descendant of the Ire family. There are no remains of the dwellings in which either Washington, Monroe or Madison were born. They are the tears of joy which trickle down the, mountain's face as it views from its high peaks the verdure, quiet, and beauty of its lowland offspring.

The numerous streams throughout Tidewater Virginia can be made to produce as much wealth as can be produced from its lands. Oysters of the finest flavor, and fish of nearly every edible species are found in its waters. Many of these streams wind their tortuous way far into the interior of the many little peninsulas.

They add a charm to the landscape as they sharply turn a point of land, and hide beyond it to appear again farther away. To follow them in their gambols, one has only to seek some high point of land and he is charmed by the sight which nature in her freak of jollity has bestowed to this section of America.

The forests are composed mainly of pine, which always carry an emerald hue upon their boughs, and thus form a pleasing sight during the winter months in comparison with the harder woods which shed their leaves in autumn, and shiver in their bare limbs during the chilly winter, until spring in its compassionate mood grants them cover and makes them again things of beauty.

The least advanced tribes were those in the valley of the Columbia, in the Hudson Bay Territory, in parts of Canada, California, and Mexico. The use and art of pottery, and the cultivation of gardens, or fields were unknown to these tribes.

The second, or intermediate class lucre those who subsisted upon fish, game, and the products of a limited cultivation of the soil. Many of them lived in stockaded villages. The third class were the tribes who depended upon horticulture for subsistence, cultivating maize and plants by irrigation.

They constructed joint tenement houses of adobe bricks and stone, and lived together in villages.

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Such tribes were found in New Mexico and Mexico. The Indians whom the colonists first met in Virginia and with whop whom they lead to deal later on, were members of the Powhatan Confederacy, a part of the Algonquin stock whose tribes extended from Cape Hatteras to Newfoundland. The Powhatan Confederacy inhabited the Virginia tidewater section from the sea coast westward to the falls of the rivers James, Rappahannock, and Potomac, extending into the tidewater section of Maryland as far north as the Patuxent River, and southward to Carolina.

It was composed of between thirty and forty tribes, the far greater number of whom were women and children. Accidents incident to hunting wild animals, and the frequent warring between tribes decimated the ranks of the men.

In the wars the women and children were usually taken captive to become a part of the victorious tribe. Each of the tribes was governed by inferior kings-Werowances-who paid tribute from the products of the chase, and of the soil to the great chief, or emperor, called Powhatan, whose subjects they and all their tribe were to his will. The Powhatan, known to history, was between sixty and seventy years of age when the first colony reached Virginia.

He was tall and powerfully built, and able to endure much fatigue. He was a man of exceptional valor and judgment, though tyrannous in his commands, and cruel in his punishments. He caused the heads of those who offended him "to be laid upon the altar or sacrificing stone and their brains beaten cut with clubs;" others were tied to a tree, and their joints cut off with oyster or clam shells, and their skin scraped from their head and face, and their bodies ripped open and burned.

Another waiteth with a bunch of feathers to wipe them instead of a towel, and the feathers when he hath wiped are dried again. As he is weary of his women he bestows them on those that best deserve them at his hands. The rule of descent of his government was, upon his death, first to his brethren, and after that to his sisters, and then to the heirs, male or female of the eldest sister. In all his ancient inheritances he had houses built for his entertainment. Powhatan died in April,and was buried at the place known as Powhatan, on the James River.

The habitations of the Virginia Indians were built like arbors, of small young saplings bowed and tied, and covered with mats of rushes, or the barb of trees "very handsomely, that notwithstanding either wind, rain, or weather, they are warm as stoves, but very smoky, yet at the top of the house there is a hole made for the smoke to go into right over the fire. Their fire was kindled by friction by rapidly revolving between the palms of the hands a pointed stick pressed within a hole in a block of wood, surrounded by dry moss, or leaves: On these round about the house they lie heads and points one by the other against the fire, some covered with mats, some with skins, and some stark naked lie on the ground, from 6 to 20 in a house" The Indians lived chiefly by hunting, together with the products of the water, supplemented by the products of the soil which consisted mainly of corn and pumpkins, together with the roots of artichoke--Tochnough.

An old writer said: Powhatan, their great king, and some others that are provident, roast their fish and flesh upon hurdles, and keep it until scarce times. If any great commander arrive at the habitation of a Werowance king of a tribethey spread a mat as do the Turks, for a carpet for him to sit upon.

Upon another right opposite they sit themselves. Then do all with a terrible voice of shouting bid him welcome. After this do two or more of their chiefest men make an oration, testifying their love, which they do with such vehemency, and so great passions, that they sweat till they drop, and are so out of breath they can scarce speak.

So that a man would take them to be exceeding angry, or stark mad. Such victual as they have, they spend freely, and at night where his lodging is appointed they set a woman fresh painted red with Pocones and oyle to be his bed fellow.

The mothers were fond of their children and never punished them, hoping thereby they would grow to be brave and courageous.

To make them hardy, they were bathed in the rivers during all seasons of the year, and their bodies painted and anointed with oils or grease. Their clothing consisted of loose mantles of turkey feathers, or the skins of wild animals, and aprons of the same material bound about the lower body.

The less provident were covered with mats of rushes, grass or leaves. Their feet in winter were covered with deer skins. The women tattooed their faces, breast, arms, and legs with shapes of beasts and serpents. In their ears some had holes to hang chains or bracelets. In these holes some wore a small green, or yellow snake, which lapped itself about their neck, often coming in contact with the lips of the wearers.

Their heads and shoulders when in full dress were painted red with Pocone. In order to make the sun he first made water, and this he placed in a hollow vessel, like an earthen dish to harden into something like ice. And this hardened ball he placed in the sky. First he placed it in the North, but it did not work; then he placed it in the West, but it did not work; then he placed it in the South, but it did not work; then he placed it in the East and there it worked as he wanted it to.

And the moon he made in the same way and tried in the same places, with the same results. But when he made the stars he took the water in his mouth and spurted it up into the sky. But the first night his stars did not give light enough. So he took the Doctor-stone diamondthe tone-dum-haw-teh, and smashed it up, and took the pieces and threw them into the sky to mix with the water in the stars, and then there was light enough.

And now Juhwertamahkai rubbed again on his breast and from the substance he obtained there made two little dolls, and these he laid on the earth. And they were human beings, man and woman.

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And now for a time the people increased till they filled the earth. For the first parents were perfect, and there was no sickness and no death. But when the earth was full then there was nothing to eat, so they killed and ate each other.

But Juhwertamahkai did not like the way his people acted, to kill and eat each other, and so he let the sky fall to kill them. But when the sky dropped he, himself, took a staff and broke a hole through, through which he and Nooee emerged and escaped, leaving behind them all the people dead. And Juhwertamahkai, being now on the top of this fallen sky, again made a man and a woman, in the same way as before. But this man and woman became grey when old, and their children became grey still younger, and their children became grey younger still, and so on till the babies were gray in their cradles.

And Juhwertamahkai, who had made a new earth and sky, just as there had been before, did not like his people becoming grey in their cradles, so he let the sky fall on them again, and again made a hole and escaped, with Nooee, as before. And Juhwertamahkai, on top of this second sky, again made a new heaven and a new earth, just as he had done before, and new people. But these new people made a vice of smoking. Before human beings had never smoked till they were old, but now they smoked younger, and each generation still younger, till the infants wanted to smoke in their cradles.

And Juhwertamahkai did not like this, and let the sky fall again, and created everything new again in the same way, and this time he created the earth as it is now. But at first the whole slope of the world was westward, and though there were peaks rising from this slope there were no true valleys, and all the water that fell ran away and there was no water for the people to drink.

So Juhwertamahkai sent Nooee to fly around among the mountains, and over the earth, to cut valleys with his wings, so that the water could be caught and distributed and there might be enough for the people to drink. Now the sun was male and the moon was female and they met once a month. And the moon became a mother and went to a mountain called Tahs-my-et-tahn Toe-ahk sun striking mountain and there was born her baby. But she had duties to attend to, to turn around and give light, so she made a place for the child by tramping down the weedy bushes and there left it.

And the child, having no milk, was nourished on the earth. And this child was the coyote, and as he grew he went out to walk and in his walk came to the house of Juhwertamahkai and Nooee, where they lived. And when he came there Juhwertamahkai knew him and called him Toe-hahvs, because he was laid on the weedy bushes of that name. But now out of the North came another powerful personage, who has two names, See-ur-huh and Ee-ee-toy.

Now Seeurhuh means older brother, and when this personage came to Juhwertamahkai, Nooee and Toehahvs he called them his younger brothers. But they claimed to have been here first, and to be older than he, and there was a dispute between them.

But finally, because he insisted so strongly, and just to please him, they let him be called older brother. And the people who were left out fled to the mountains; to the mountains called Gah-kote-kih Superstition Mts.

And there was a powerful man among these people, a doctor mahkaiwho set a mark on the mountain side and said the water would not rise above it. And the people believed him and camped just beyond the mark; but the water came on and they had to go higher. And this happened four times. And the mahkai did this to help his people, and also used power to raise the mountain, but at last he saw all was to be a failure. And he called the people and asked them all to come close together, and he took his doctor-stone mahkai-haw-teh which is called Tonedumhawteh or Stone-of-Light, and held it in the palm of his hand and struck it hard with his other hand, and it thundered so loud that all the people were frightened and they were all turned into stone.

He is best known for completing four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean, and was long called the discoverer of the New World. Throughout his life, he thought he had arrived in the Indies, far to the east of Europe, and he mistakenly called the indigenous peoples he found there Indians.

Columbus was a better sailor than politician. After he was appointed a colonial governor by the Spanish monarchy, he became embroiled in political intrigues while trying to maintain his authority and positions. His opponents eventually found ways to remove him from power and even had him arrested. He died inin Spain, in poverty and poor health, a number of years after returning from his last voyage. The United States, especially in its first century of existence, was long nicknamed Columbia.

It celebrates Columbus Day on the second Monday of October, commemorating October 12, as the day Columbus arrived in the Americas. This holiday is not without controversy, since Columbus represents the first of many Europeans who claimed and colonized lands long occupied by others and who enslaved and tortured natives and dispossessed them of their own cultures and religious beliefs.

Works actually penned by Columbus include a number of letters, which are some of the oldest written accounts of the New World penned by a European. A Life Reexamined The Argonaut Press, Since I know that you will be pleased at the great victory with which Our Lord has crowned my voyage, I write this to you, from which you will learn how in thirty-three days I passed from the Canary Islands to the Indies, with the fleet which the most illustrious king and queen, our sovereigns, gave to me.

There I found very many islands, filled with people innumerable, and of them all I have taken possession for their highnesses, by proclamation made and with the royal standard unfurled, and no opposition was offered to me. To the first island which I found I gave the name "San Salvador," in remembrance of the Divine Majesty, Who had marvelously bestowed all this; the Indians call it "Guanahani.

When I came to Juana, I followed its coast to the westward, and I found it to be so extensive that I thought that it must be the mainland, the province of Cathay. And since there were neither towns nor villages on the seashore, but small hamlets only, with the people of which I could not have speech, because they all fled immediately, I went forward on the same course, thinking that I could not fail to find great cities and towns.

At the end of many leagues, seeing that there was no change and that the coast was bearing me northwards, which I wished to avoid, since winter was already approaching and I proposed to make from it to the south, and as, moreover, the wind was carrying me forward, I determined not to wait for a change in the weather and retraced my path as far as a remarkable harbour known to me.

From that point, I sent two men inland to learn if there were a king or great cities. They travelled three days' journey, finding an infinity of small hamlets and people without number, but nothing of importance. For this reason, they returned. I understood sufficiently from other Indians, whom I had already taken, that this land was nothing but an island, and I therefore followed its coast eastward for one hundred and seven leagues to the point where it ended. This island and all the others are very fertile to a limitless degree, and this island is extremely so.

In it there are many harbours on the coast of the sea, beyond comparison with others that I know in Christendom, and many rivers, good and large, which is marvellous. Its lands are high; there are in it many sierras and very lofty mountains, beyond comparison with that of Teneriffe. All are most beautiful, of a thousand shapes; all are accessible and are filled with trees of a thousand kinds and tall, so that they seem to touch the sky. I am told that they never lose their foliage, and this I can believe, for I saw them as green and lovely as they are in Spain in May, and some of them were flowering, some bearing fruit, and some on another stage, according to their nature.

The nightingale was singing and other birds of a thousand kinds, in the month of November, there where I went. There are six or eight kinds of palm, which are a wonder to behold on account of their beautiful variety, but so are the other trees and fruits and plants.

In it are marvellous pine groves; there are very wide and smiling plains, and there is honey; and there are birds of many kinds and fruits in great diversity. In the interior, there are mines of metals, and the population is without number. The sierras and the mountains, the plains, the arable and pasture lands, are so lovely and so rich for planting and sowing, for breeding cattle of every kind, for building towns and villages.

The harbours of the sea here are such as cannot be believed to exist unless they have been seen, and so with the rivers, many and great, and of good water, the majority of which contain gold.

In the trees, fruits and plants, there is a great difference from those of Juana. In this island, there are many spices and great mines of gold and of other metals. The people of this island and of all the other islands which I have found and of which I have information, all go naked, men and women, as their mothers bore them, although some of the women cover a single place with the leaf of a plant or with a net of cotton which they make for the purpose.

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They have no iron or steel or weapons, nor are they fitted to use them. This is not because they are not well built and of handsome stature, but because they are very marvellously timorous. They have no other arms than spears made of canes, cut in seeding time, to the ends of which they fix a small sharpened stick. Of these they do not dare to make use, for many times it has happened that I have sent ashore two or three men to some town to have speech with them, and countless people have come out to them, and as soon as they have seen my men approaching, they have fled, a father even not waiting for his son.

This is not because ill has been done to any one of them; on the contrary, at every place where I have been and have been able to have speech with them, I have given to them of that which I had, such as cloth and many other things, receiving nothing in exchange.

But so they are, incurably timid. It is true that, after they have been reassured and have lost this fear, they are so guileless and so generous with all that they possess, that no one would believe it who has not seen it.

They refuse nothing that they possess, if it be asked of them; on the contrary, they invite any one to share it and display as much love as if they would give their hearts. They are content with whatever trifle of whatever kind it may be that is given to them, whether it be of value or valueless.

I forbade that they should be given things so worthless as fragments of broken crockery, scraps of broken glass and ends of straps, although when they were able to get them, they fancied that they possessed the best jewel in the world. So it was found that for a strap a sailor received gold to the weight of two and a half castellanos, and others received much more for other things which were worth less. As for new blancas, for them they would give everything which they had, although it might be two or three castellanos' weight of gold or an arroba or two of spun cotton.

They took even the pieces of the broken hoops of the wine barrels and, like savages, gave what they had, so that it seemed to me to be wrong and I forbade it. I gave them a thousand handsome good things, which I had brought, in order that they might conceive affection for us and, more than that, might become Christians and be inclined to the love and service of your highnesses and of the whole Castilian nation, and strive to aid us and to give us of the things which they have in abundance and which are necessary to us.

They do not hold any creed nor are they idolaters; only they all believe that power and good are in the heavens and are very firmly convinced that I, with these ships and men, came from the heavens, and in this belief they everywhere received me after they had mastered their fear.

This belief is not the result of ignorance, for they are, on the contrary, of a very acute intelligence and they are men who navigate all those seas, so that it is amazing how good an account they give of everything. It is because they have never seen people clothed or ships of such a kind. As soon as I arrived in the Indies, in the first island which I found, I took by force some of the natives, in order that they might learn and might give me information of that which there is in these parts.

And so it was that they soon understood us, and we them, either by speech or signs, and they have been very serviceable. I still carry them with me, and they are always assured that I come from Heaven, for all the intercourse which they have had with me. They were the first to announce this wherever I went, and the others went running from house to house, and the neighbouring towns, with loud cries of, "Come!

See the men from Heaven! In all the islands, they have very many canoes, which are like rowing fustas, some larger and some smaller; some are greater than a fusta of eighteen benches. They are not so broad, because they are made of a single log of wood, but a fusta would not keep up with them in rowing, since their speed is a thing incredible.

In these they navigate among all those islands, which are innumerable, and carry their goods. One of these canoes I have seen with seventy and eighty men in it, each one with his oar.

In all these islands, I saw no great diversity in the appearance of the people or in their manners and language.

On the contrary, they all understand one another, which is a very curious thing, on account of which I hope that their highnesses will determine upon their conversion to our holy faith, towards which they are very inclined.

I have already said how I went one hundred and seven leagues in a straight line from west to east along the seashore of the island of Juana, and as a result of this voyage I can say that this island is larger than England and Scotland together, for, beyond these one hundred and seven leagues, there remain to the westward two provinces to which I have not gone. One of these provinces they call "Avan," and there people are born with tails.

These provinces cannot have a length of less than fifty or sixty leagues, as I could understand from those Indians whom I have and who know all the islands. It appears to me that the women work more than do the men. I have not been able to learn if they hold private property; it seemed to me to be that all took a share in that which any one had, especially of eatable things. In these islands I have so far found no human monstrosities, as many expected, but on the contrary the whole population is very well formed, nor are they negroes as in Guinea, but their hair is flowing and they are not born where there is intense force in the rays of the sun.

It is true that the sun has there great power, although it is distant from the equinoctial line twenty-six degrees. In these islands, where there are high mountains, the cold was severe this winter, but they endure it, being used to it and with the help of meats which they consume with many and extremely hot spices. As I have found no monsters, so I have had no report of any, except in an island "Quaris," which is the second at the coming into the Indies, and which is inhabited by a people who are regarded in all the islands as very fierce and who eat human flesh.

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They have many canoes with which they range through all the islands of India and pillage and take whatever they can. They are no more malformed than are the others, except that they have the custom of wearing their hair long like women, and they use bows and arrows of the same cane stems, with a small piece of wood at the end, owing to their lack of iron which they do not possess.

They are ferocious among these other people who are cowardly to an excessive degree, but I make no more account of them than of the rest. These are they who have intercourse with the women of "Martinio," which is the first island met on the way from Spain to the Indies, in which there is not a man.

These women engage in no feminine occupation, but use bows and arrows of cane, like those already mentioned, and they arm and protect themselves with plates of copper, of which they have much. In it there is gold incalculable, and from it and from the other islands I bring with me Indians as evidence. In conclusion, to speak only of that which has been accomplished on this voyage, which was so hasty, their highnesses can see that I will give them as much gold as they may need, if their highness will render me very slight assistance; moreover, I will give them spices and cotton, as much as their highnesses shall command; and mastic, as much as they shall order to be shipped and which, up to now, has been found only in Greece, in the island of Chios, and the Seignory sells it for what it pleases; and aloe, as much as they shall order to be shipped; and slaves, as many as they shall order to be shipped and who will be from the idolaters.

I believe also that I have found rhubarb and cinnamon, and I shall find a thousand other things of value, which the people whom I have left there will have discovered, for I have not delayed at any point, so far as the wind allowed me to sail, except in the town of Navidad, in order to leave it secured and well established, and in truth I should have done much more if the ships had served me as reason demanded.

Done in the caravel, off the Canary Islands, on the fifteenth of February, in the year one thousand four hundred and ninety-three. After having written this, and being in the sea of Castile, there came upon me so great a south-south-west wind that I was obliged to lighten ship. But I ran here today into this port of Lisbon, which was the greatest marvel in the world, whence I decided to write to their highnesses.

In all the Indies, I have always found weather like May. There I went in thirty-three days and I should have returned in twenty-eight, save for these storms which have detained me for fourteen days, beating about in this sea. Here all the sailors say that never has there been so bad a winter nor so many ships lost. Done on the fourth day of March. Electronic text Copyright This text is freely available provided the text is distributed with the header information [this notice] provided.

The Argonaut Press, electronic source of text: I did not persist in delaying to enter on it, because there was a lack of ships, and for all that concerns your service, I hope in Him Who made me, that I shall be of use.

I believe that your highness will remember that I wished to order the construction of ships in a new manner; the brevity of the time did not give room for this, and I foresaw certainly that which has come to pass.

I hold that in this trade and mines of such extent and such dominion there is more than there is in all else that has been done in the Indies. This is not a child to be left to the care of a stepmother. I believed that their example would have been to the profit of others; on the contrary, they are in a languid state although they are not dead; the infirmity is incurable or very extensive; let him who brought them to this state come now with the remedy if he can or if he knows it; in destruction, everyone is an adept.

It was always the custom to give thanks and promotion to him who imperilled his person. It is not just that he who has been so hostile to this undertaking should enjoy its fruits or that his children should. Those who left the Indies, flying from toils and speaking evil of the matter and of me, have returned with official employment. So it has now been ordained in the case of Veragua.

It is an ill example and without profit for the business and for the justice in the world. The fear of this, with other sufficient reasons, which I saw clearly, led me to pray your highnesses before I went to discover these islands and Tierra Firme, that you would leave them to me to govern in your royal name. It pleased you; it was a privilege and agreement, and under seal and oath, and you granted me the title of viceroy and admiral and governor—general of all.

And you fixed the boundary, a hundred leagues beyond the Azores and the Cape Verde Islands, by a line passing from pole to pole, and you gave me wide power over this and over all that I might further discover. The document states this very fully. The other most important matter, which calls aloud for redress, remains inexplicable to this moment. Seven years I was at your royal court, where all to whom this undertaking was mentioned, unanimously declared it to be a delusion.

Now all, down to the very tailors, seek permission to make discoveries. It can be believed that they go forth to plunder, and it is granted to them to do so, so that they greatly prejudice my honour and do very great damage to the enterprise.

It is well to give to God that which is His due and to Caesar that which belongs to him. This is a just sentiment and based on justice. The lands which here obey your highnesses are more extensive and richer than all other Christian lands. After that I, by the divine will, had placed them under your royal and exalted lordship, and was on the point of securing a very great revenue, suddenly, while I was waiting for ships that I might come to your high presence with victory and with great news of gold, being very secure and joyful, I was made a prisoner and with my two brothers was thrown into a ship, laden with fetters, stripped to the skin, very ill—treated, and without being tried or condemned.

Who will believe that a poor foreigner could in such a place rise against your highnesses, without cause, and without the support of some other prince, and being alone among your vassals and natural subjects, and having all my children at your royal court? I came to serve at the age of twenty—eight years, and now I have not a hair on my body that is not grey, and my body is infirm, and whatever remained to me from those years of service has been spent and taken away from me and sold, and from my brothers, down to my very coat, without my being heard or seen, to my great dishonour.

It must be believed that this was not done by your royal command. The restitution of my honour, the reparation of my losses, and the punishment of him who did this, will spread abroad the fame of your royal nobility. The same punishment is due to him who robbed me of the pearls, and to him who infringed my rights as admiral. Very great will be your merit, fame without parallel will be yours, if you do this, and there will remain in Spain a glorious memory of your highnesses, as grateful and just princes.

The pure devotion which I have ever borne to the service of your highnesses, and the unmerited wrong that I have suffered, will not permit me to remain silent, although I would fain do so; I pray your highnesses to pardon me. I am so ruined as I have said; hitherto I have wept for others; now, Heaven have mercy upon me, and may the earth weep for me.

Of worldly goods, I have not even a blanca for an offering in spiritual things. Here in the Indies I have become careless of the prescribed forms of religion. Alone in my trouble, sick, in daily expectation of death, and encompassed about by a million savages, full of cruelty, and our foes, and so separated from the Blessed Sacraments of Holy Church, my soul will be forgotten if it here leaves my body.

Weep for me, whoever has charity, truth and justice. I did not sail upon this voyage to gain honour or wealth; this is certain, for already all hope of that was dead. I came to your highnesses with true devotion and with ready zeal, and I do not lie. I humbly pray your highnesses that if it please God to bring me forth from this place, that you will be pleased to permit me to go to Rome and to other places of pilgrimage. May the Holy Trinity preserve your life and high estate, and grant you increase of prosperity.

Done in the Indies, in the island of Jamaica, on the seventh of July, in the year one thousand five hundred and three. Resources for Explorers, Invaders, and Colonists Bartolome de las Casas — [ image ] Bartolome de las Casas was born inin Seville, Spain and became a Dominican friar and later the Bishop of Chiapas, in what is now southern Mexico.

During his life, he wrote extensively about the brutal treatment of indigenous peoples at the hands of Spanish colonists and he often campaigned for laws to prevent ongoing atrocities against the natives living in America. Casas' key works expose cruelties and injustices perpetuated by European explorers and settlers against natives and argued that they should be treated as equals, all in order to lay a better foundation for missionary work in the New World.

Today, Casas is sometimes considered one of the early advocates for universal human rights through his writings. A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies. Hewson at the Crown in Cornhil, near the Stocks-Market. But, good God, what Arms, do you imagin? They laid Wagers among themselves, who should with a Sword at one blow cut, or divide a Man in two; or which of them should decollate or behead a Man, with the greatest dexterity; nay farther, which should sheath his Sword in the Bowels of a Man with the quickest dispatch and expedition.

They snatcht young Babes from the Mothers Breasts, and then dasht out the brains of those innocents against the Rocks; others they cast into Rivers scoffing and jeering them, and call'd upon their Bodies when falling with derision, the true testimony of their Cruelty, to come to them, and inhumanely exposing others to their Merciless Swords, together with the Mothers that gave them Life. They erected certain Gibbets, large, but low made, so that their feet almost reacht the ground, every one of which was so order'd as to bear Thirteen Persons in Honour and Reverence as they said blasphemously of our Redeemer and his Twelve Apostles, under which they made a Fire to burn them to Ashes whilst hanging on them: But those they intended to preserve alive, they dismiss'd, their Hands half cut, and still hanging by the Skin, to carry their Letters missive to those that fly from us and ly sculking on the Mountains, as an exprobation of their flight.

The Lords and Persons of Noble Extract were usually expos'd to this kind of Death; they order'd Gridirons to be placed and supported with wooden Forks, and putting a small Fire under them, these miserable Wretches by degrees and with loud Shreiks and exquisite Torments, at last Expir'd.

I once saw Four or Five of their most Powerful Lords laid on these Gridirons, and thereon roasted, and not far off, Two or Three more over-spread with the same Commodity, Man's Flesh; but the shril Clamours which were heard there being offensive to the Captain, by hindring his Repose, he commanded them to be strangled with a Halter. I was an Eye-Witness of these and and innumerable Number of other Cruelties: He was involved in a long struggle for survival mostly in western portions of the Gulf of Mexico, around the Galveston area.

He accompanied the Narvaez Expedition to the Tampa Bay region inbut the expedition splintered, enduring sickness, starvation and shipwreck, as various factions sought out gold or other Spaniards in Mexico.

As their numbers dwindled, Cabeza De Vaca and three other men were enslaved by various native tribes along the Gulf coast and worked their way to the Gulf of California over the course of many years, finally reaching Mexico City and returning to Europe in This tale of survival was written down and published in as La Relacion The Report and later renamed Naufragios Shipwrecks.

This writer is known today for his chronicles of the interactions he recorded with the peoples, lands, plants and animals of the American south and southwest. Cabeza de Vaca and the Indians of the Americas. Allerton Book Company, The people on it are tall and well formed; they have no other weapons than bows and arrows with which they are most dexterous.

The men have one of their nipples perforated from side to side and sometimes both; through this hole is thrust a reed as long as two and a half hands and as thick as two fingers; they also have the under lip perforated and a piece of cane in it as thin as the half of a finger. The women do the hard work. People stay on this island from October till the end of February, feeding on the roots I have mentioned, taken from under the water in November and December.

They have channels made of reeds and get fish only during that time; afterwards they subsist on roots. At the end of February they remove to other parts in search of food, because the roots begin to sprout and are not good any more. Of all the people in the world, they are those who most love their children and treat them best, and should the child of one of them happen to die, parents and relatives bewail it, and the whole settlement, the lament lasting a full year, day after day.

Before sunrise the parents begin to weep, after them the tribe, and the same they do at noon and at dawn. At the end of the year of mourning they celebrate the anniversary and wash and cleanse themselves of all their paint. They mourn all their dead in this manner, old people excepted, to whom they do not pay any attention, saying that these have had their time and are no longer of any use, but only take space, and food from the children.

Their custom as to bury the dead, except those who are medicine men among them, whom they burn, and while the fire is burning, all dance and make a big festival, grinding the bones to powder. At the end of the year, when they celebrate the anniversary, they scarify themselves and give to the relatives the pulverized bones to drink in water. Every man has a recognized wife, but the medicine men enjoy greater privileges, since they may have two or three, and among these wives there is great friendship and harmony.

When one takes a woman for his wife, from the day he marries her, whatever he may hunt or fish, she has to fetch it to the home of her father, without daring to touch or eat of it, and from the home of the father-in-law they bring the food to the husband. All the while neither the wife's father nor her mother enter his abode, nor is he allowed to go to theirs, or to the homes of his brothers-in-law, and should they happen to meet they go out of each other's way a crossbow's shot or so, with bowed heads and eyes cast to the ground, holding it to be an evil thing to look at each other or speak.

The women are free to communicate with their parents-in-law or relatives and speak to them. This custom prevails from that island as far as about fifty leagues inland. There is another custom, that when a son or brother dies no food is gathered by those of his household for three months, preferring rather to starve, but the relatives and neighbors provide them with victuals.

Now, as during the time we were there so many of them died, there was great starvation in most of the lodges, due to their customs and ceremonials, as well as to the weather, which was so rough that such as could go out after food brought in but very little, withal working hard for it. Therefore the Indians by whom I was kept forsook the island and in several canoes went over to the mainland to some bays where there were a great many oysters and during three months of the year they do not eat anything else and drink very bad water.