Kennewick Man - Wikipedia
GORDON CREEK WOMAN MEETS KENNEWICK MAN: NEW INTERPRETATIONS AND PROTOCOLS REGARDING THE. PEOPLING OF THE AMERICAS. DNA Links 8,Year-Old Kennewick Man to Native Americans . The Guardian that Kennewick Man still didn't meet the legal definition of a. An archeologist tells how he put a face to Kennewick Man, a year-old skeleton found in Washington State, in this article from NOVA Online.
Heavily used muscles, for example, leave prominent spurs or ridges in facial bone and show what expressions the person most often held. Facial approximations are not literal portraits of the dead. No means yet exist for doing that. Next, after placing the tissue thickness markers, the Gerasimov-style artist fashions 18 major muscles from clay and places them on the face according to their standard thickness in human beings.
These include the oval sphincters that surround the mouth and eyes, the massive muscles that close the jaws, and the delicate muscles that manipulate the corners of the mouth and wrinkle the brows and nose. Once these are in place, the face begins to take on a human look, albeit a macabre one. Using the muscles now as a secondary superstructure, the artist lays a thin clay "skin" over the face to the height of the tissue markers, taking into account the topography created by the musculature.
The resultant face is immediately quite life-like and gives the artist less latitude in crafting the finished face. As with the American school, the sculptor ages and lines the face following advice from the team's scientific members, taking cues from the asymmetries and markings noted in the initial inspection of the skull. In the case of Kennewick Man, evidence for severe injuries suggested that the man lived many of his plus years in frequent if not chronic pain. Prominent muscle markings above the chin and beneath the eye sockets confirmed this, revealing a face held in an expression of determined endurance.
Meet Kennewick Man
For this reason, our approximation of Kennewick Man, which we created in about three days using the Gerasimov method, shows the weariness of a middle-aged man in perpetual discomfort. Chatters works on Kennewick Man's face while McClelland looks on. Forensic anthropologists ordinarily rely on this method for recreations of our earlier hominid ancestors. They would never return a phone call. I kept expressing an interest in the skeleton to study it—at our expense.
All we needed was an afternoon. But the corps indicated it had made up its mind.
Meet Kennewick Man | PBS LearningMedia
Owsley began telephoning his colleagues. Schneider contacted the corps and was also rebuffed. Owsley suggested they file a lawsuit and get an injunction. But no institution wanted anything to do with the lawsuit, which promised to attract negative attention and be hugely expensive. They would have to litigate as private citizens. And efforts were made. With literally hours to go, a judge ordered the corps to hold the bones until the case was resolved. When word got out that the eight scientists had sued the government, criticism poured in, even from colleagues.
The head of the Society for American Archaeology tried to get them to drop the lawsuit. Some felt it would interfere with the relationships they had built with Native American tribes. But the biggest threat came from the Justice Department itself. Stanford, a husky man with a full beard and suspenders, had roped in rodeos in New Mexico and put himself through graduate school by farming alfalfa.
They were no pushovers. But both anthropologists refused to withdraw, and the director of the National Museum of Natural History at the time, Robert W. The Justice Department backed off.
Owsley and his group were eventually forced to litigate not just against the corps, but also the Department of the Army, the Department of the Interior and a number of individual government officials. As scientists on modest salaries, they could not begin to afford the astronomical legal bills. Schneider and Barran agreed to work for free, with the faint hope that they might, someday, recover their fees.
The lawsuit dragged on for years. In the storage area where the bones were and are being kept at the Burke Museum, records show there have been wide swings in temperature and humidity that, the scientists say, have damaged the specimen.
Ina day examination of the skeleton, led by forensic anthropologist Douglas Owsley, revealed that Kennewick Man had arthritis in his right elbow, both of his knees, and several vertebrae but not severe enough to be crippling. Owsley discovered that Kennewick Man had also suffered some trauma in his lifetime, which was evident by a fractured rib that had healed, a depression fracture on his forehead, and a similar indentation on the left side of the head, and a spear jab that healed.
Despite earlier theories regarding his age, the Owsley team thinks he may have been as young as 38 at the time of death. By examining the calcium carbonate left behind as underground water collected on the underside of the bones and then evaporated, scientists were able to conclude that Kennewick Man was lying on his back with his feet rolled slightly outward and his arms at his side, with the palms facing down, a position that could not have been accidental.Kennewick Man
Owsley and Richard L. Measurements of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios in the bone collagen indicate that the man lived almost exclusively on a diet of marine mammals for the last 20 or so years of his life and that the water he drank was glacial melt water. That, combined with the location of the find, led to the conclusion that the individual led a highly mobile, water-borne lifestyle centered on the northern coast.
In Junenew results of such aDNA analysis were announced, suggesting that the remains are more closely related to modern Native Americans than to any other living population.
His genetic profile was particularly close to that of members of the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation. Of the five tribes that originally claimed Kennewick Man as an ancestor, their members were the only ones to donate DNA samples for evaluation. The lack of genomes from North American aboriginal populations have made it impossible to ascertain Kennewick Man's nearest living relatives among regional Native American tribes.
Regardless of the debate over whether there were more than one source of migration following the LGM, Kennewick Man has yielded insight into the marine lifestyle and mobility of early coastal migrants.
First, it was noted that no one outside of Owsley's team had an opportunity to examine the Smithsonian's data to see how the team reached its conclusions. Standard procedure in the academic world is for scientists to submit articles to scholarly journals, have other experts review the articles prior to publication, and have experts debate results after publication.
While Owsley consulted extensively with his group of experts, he has yet to publish a scholarly article on Kennewick Man. There's no place for anyone to look at the actual data.