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NTA Members - Flying Participants. Unit, Aircraft, Note. EC 1/12 (FAF), Mirage C/B (5x). 31 smd (BAF), FA/B MLU Fighting Falcon (7x). Sqn (RAF). The final report on the tiger attack that left Roy Horn partially NFL · The Big Game · NCAA Football · NBA · NCAA Basketball Updated: Jun 30, PM PDT of the mauling and an internal MGM-Mirage investigation report. After 2, performances by the tiger on stage, the reason for the. As the University of Toledo prepares for its football season opener Clemson Tigers .. FBI agents observed Manni in December meeting with Toledo in a back corner on the second floor, near the $2, blackjack tables. . But as a precaution, the 10 sports books affiliated with MGM Mirage.
Alabama also holds the record for most bowl victories with 37 prior to bowl games. Bythere were five major college bowl games: Bythe number had increased to eight games. This figure of eight bowl games persisted throughbut by the number had increased again, to 11 games. The number continued to increase, to 15 games into 19 games in25 games in35 games in and 41 games by 40 games plus two teams playing a second game to determine the National Champion.
Up until around the s, the small number of games were played solely on New Years Daywith the only major exception being the holiday occurring on a Sunday. For the —17 bowl seasonthe 41 games require a little over three weeks, starting December 17 and ending on January 9. While bowl games were originally exclusive to warm cities thought of as winter vacation destinations, indoor stadiums allow games to be played in colder climates.
In the s, many bowl games began to modify or abandon their traditional names in favor of selling naming rights. While some include the traditional name in some form e. Prior to most bowls had strict agreements with certain conferences. For example, the Rose Bowl traditionally invited the champions of the Pac and the Big Ten conferences.
- As summer ends, heat is on in Toledo point-shaving case
These conference tie-ins led to situations where the top-ranked teams in the country could not play each other in a bowl game. The national championship was decided after the bowls, solely by voters for various media polls, who tried to decide which team was best, sometimes based on wins against far inferior teams. As a result, there could be multiple championship titles and no single champion.
This led to the term "Mythical National Championship," which is still used to describe high school national champions, since high school sports have state championship tournaments but not national. Attempts to determine a national champion Because of the vested economic interests entrenched in the various bowl games, the longer regular season compared to lower divisions of college football, and a desire not to have college players play several rounds of playoff games during final exams and winter recess, the Division I Bowl Subdivision long avoided instituting a playoff tournament to determine an annual national champion.
Instead, the National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision has traditionally been determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players. Inthe Bowl Allianceformed by the major bowls and conferences, put in place a system where the two highest ranked teams would play each other, even if they were each affiliated with a different bowl.
Number 1 vs Number 2 bowl match-ups became far more likely, but were not guaranteed. After the season, undefeated Michigan was ranked first in both major polls, but as the Big Ten champion, they played eighth-ranked Pac champion Washington State in the Rose Bowl. Michigan won by five on New Year's Day and the next night, Nebraska beat Tennessee playing with an injury-hobbled Peyton Manning by The AP kept Michigan as the champion, but the Coaches' Poll jumped Nebraska, playing its final game for retiring coach Tom Osbornein part because of their more lopsided victory against a more highly ranked opponent.
The BCS attempted to match the two highest ranked teams in the country based upon calculations from various sources, including statistics and coaches' polls, with one of the four bowl games in the consortium the Rose Bowl, Fiesta BowlSugar Bowl and Orange Bowl rotating the role of "national championship", or beginning ina dedicated BCS Championship Game rotated among the BCS venues. The BCS Championship Game, while separate from the four main bowls, was still rotated between their sites.
The Coaches Poll was contractually obligated to recognize the winner of the game as its national champion. The new system uses a four-team single-elimination tournamentwith its participants selected and seeded by a committee; the semi-final games are rotated between pairs of the six member bowls yearly Rose Bowl and Sugar Bowl, then Orange Bowl and Cotton Bowl Classicand then the Fiesta Bowl and Peach Bowl.
The winners from the two semi-final bowls advance to the College Football Playoff National Championshipwhich is played at a neutral site determined using bids.
Members of the " New Year's Six " that are not hosting semi-final games revert to their traditional tie-ins. Professional bowl games The National Football League also used the name "bowl" for some of its playoff games. While the NFL Championship was not named a Bowl initially, the league instituted the Pro Bowl as the name of its all-star game inand introduced the Bert Bell Benefit Bowl also known as the Playoff Bowl as a matchup of the two second-place teams in each division from to Bowl games today See also: Automatic bids to college bowl games At the NCAA top level of football, the Division I Football Bowl Subdivision known as Division I-A from throughteams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least six games and by not having a losing record during the season.
They can then be invited to a bowl game based on their placement and the tie-ins that the conference has to each bowl game. A rule change for allows bowls to tender a bid to any team with a record before teams with more than six wins. Although college basketball has been tarnished by a number of point-shaving scandals dating to the s -- Toledo, in fact, was involved in an early scandal when a mob associate was arrested in for allegedly bribing four of its basketball players -- authorities familiar with government investigations believe the current case to be among the very few in which college football players have been suspected of illegally influencing games in which they played.
Authorities declined to name the players they are investigating. In the meantime, back on campus, the football team has been preparing for the season without McDougle's participation. His effectiveness as a college player had spiraled precipitously downward -- and thus, presumably, his ability to directly influence games -- ever since he tore up a knee fighting to stay in bounds and run out the clock in Toledo's victory in the Mid-American Conference title game against Miami Ohio on Dec.
Last season, with McDougle out of shape and tipping the scales just shy of pounds, Toledo coaches called his number for only eight carries. Toledo, then, is the first destination on the journey through ESPN. Toledo, Ohio Just a five-minute walk from the University of Toledo campus, on Avondale Street, sits a small brick house that McDougle called home last football season.
Since he moved out, according to the house's owner, Rick Ross, the place has been cleaned up, the walls patched and painted. New carpet covers the first floor. But in December, the place was "disgusting," Ross said. It isn't clear who owned the dogs. Ross, whose company owns nearly rental properties close to the Toledo campus, said he evicted McDougle and three other Toledo athletes from the house in January.
Ross said some of the players made payments once the football coaching staff got word they were in arrears, though he can't recall McDougle paying his share. Ross wouldn't identify the three Toledo athletes who shared the house with McDougle.
Nor would he elaborate on his contact with Toledo's football staff about the overdue rent. But he described McDougle as a friendly, look-you-in-the-eye kind of guy, despite his experience with the player as a tenant. That's a commonly heard theme. No one contacted by ESPN. His friends and acquaintances generally are surprised he's entangled in the federal gambling investigation.
In fact, according to McDougle's attorney, Scooter fails to grasp even the basics of a betting line. He doesn't understand how the line works, the plus or minuses.
I'm sure he has. Nothing illegal with that. But nobody gave him money to bet with. He never gambled with the guy or anything. He never knew this guy gambled or anything. He is the gambler. Why aren't they questioning him?
Why is everything centered around Scooter? According to the complaint, McDougle told FBI agents that he received a car, a phone and other items of value from Manni. I mean, I'd rather not say to that. I don't have a car. My phone is in my name.
I pay my own phone bill. McDougle's father said his son typically gets rides from his girlfriend, a runner on the Toledo track team. Scooter McDougle -- who, according to his father, is still enrolled at Toledo -- acknowledged knowing Manni, saying they talked "every once in a while. McDougle said he was introduced to Manni by a former Toledo football player almost three years ago.
List of PlayStation 2 games
I guess they thought it was going somewhere Instead, the players allegedly were encouraged to play to win, but by fewer points than the established Las Vegas betting line. How is the game? How do you think you guys are gonna do? Good luck to you. He never wined and dined him, bought him anything, 'cause Scooter is up there [at the university] starving.
He calls me every Friday. McDougle's parents filed for bankruptcy protection in August According to Virgil Brown, the court-appointed trustee, the case was closed with the finding that there weren't enough assets for creditors to pursue.
Burns, the university spokesman, said Manni hadn't shown up anywhere on the school's radar before the criminal complaint against McDougle was issued in March.
Manni and two family members attended the Motor City Bowl in Detroit, which is one of the games of particular interest to authorities. And, as recently as the Central Michigan game this past October, Manni's name appeared in a group that also included McDougle's parents and younger brother. Manni did not sign the pass list for that game, however, and presumably did not attend.
McDougle's parents said they'd never heard of Manni until the story broke this spring, though they've since been told that he had relationships with Toledo athletes going back almost a decade.
My thing is, why [Scooter]? The quarterback, Bruce [Gradkowski], I guess he knew him. I'm just going on what people say. Other players say that the guy had talked to them, but it was nothing. He is known to many players.
Until the past few months, Scooter McDougle hadn't been telling his parents back home in Cleveland everything about his life in Toledo and with the football team. He didn't tell them in mid-December, for example, that agents with the FBI's organized crime squad had first interviewed him. Then, little more than three months later, he didn't tell his parents he'd been called to another meeting with the FBI, a meeting that resulted in his late March arrest, the meeting apparently designed to reinforce his cooperation with the government's case.
The public move on McDougle could also have been meant as a signal to other Toledo athletes that they'd be wise to start cooperating, too. In any event, the March meeting between McDougle and the FBI took place on a road out of town and without his parents' knowledge. Burdick said the player agreed to meet investigators at a highway rest stop, supposedly so they could resume their earlier conversation. They didn't stay at the rest stop for long.
The McDougles were shocked to learn that their son had been hauled into a Detroit federal court later that afternoon. Detroit On this late May morning, Ghazi Manni was in perpetual motion in a byfoot glass booth that sits slightly elevated at the front of King Cole Foods, the family-owned grocery store a dozen blocks or so from Comerica Park and Ford Field.
He dashed about like a racehorse in full gallop -- cashing customers' checks and answering phones as he tried to keep a watchful eye on security monitors and engaged a reporter through a window slot.
Mike Fish He seemed at ease, and he displayed a self-deprecating sense of humor. Manni, bald on top with a smattering of black hair on the sides, was casual in a long-sleeve dark gray shirt that hung over his jeans. He is stocky, maybe 5-foot He said he came to this country as a teenager, from Iraq. Manni is a member of the Chaldean sect of Christianity, which has nearlyIraqi followers in the Detroit area.
A source says the connection between Manni and the Toledo players involved a Toledo cell phone store owner, Marvin Savaya, who says he is Manni's cousin. Savaya, 27, told ESPN.
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He also said a number of Toledo football players, including McDougle, and at least one basketball player -- Triplett -- frequented the several stores he has owned in the vicinity of the Toledo campus over several years. A hostess described membership in the lounge as being for serious bettors, telling ESPN. Fink has advised Manni not to talk about the federal gambling case; but from behind the window slot at King Cole Foods, Manni couldn't seem to help himself.
He joked with cashiers who wandered by about his newfound celebrity. When another manager entered the glass office, Manni told a reporter: He's a gambler, too. They came up here," he said, waving his arms wildly. It's the best clue yet that he is near the pulse of this slow-moving investigation.
The document reveals that a U. The wiretaps were in effect intermittently from November through the end of the college football season in December. I ain't changing my [phone] number. According to records, Manni was found guilty in of a felony tobacco products tax act violation.
Two years later, he pleaded guilty to firearm possession by a felon and served 90 days in county jail.
As summer ends, heat is on in Toledo point-shaving case
As for his latest troubles and the possibility of an indictment, Manni said, "That is up to the [U. We haven't done nothing wrong. The application for surveillance initially was approved by a deputy U.
Attorney in Washington, D. And the four additional wiretap approvals indicate that the judge was convinced the initial surveillance had proved fruitful as the scope of the investigation expanded. The applications, which remain sealed, also spell out the intended targets. Mitchell Karam, a businessman from the Detroit suburb of Troy. Karam is a year-old real estate developer. And he has ties to illegal gambling that date back three decades.
Karam -- who, like Manni, is Chaldean Iraqi -- doesn't have a criminal record, though sources familiar with federal organized crime cases said he has been previously connected with members of La Cosa Nostra in Detroit. Because of that association, sources said authorities are trying to determine if organized crime played a role in the Toledo case.
In a s federal crackdown on a sports gambling syndicate in and around Detroit, Karam was identified as an alleged co-conspirator, though he was never indicted. Among other alleged and unindicted co-conspirators in that case were Jerome "Dizzy" Dean, the Hall of Fame pitcher, and his nephew Paul. Among the charged were Jack Lucido, a notorious bookmaker and underworld associate. Karam subsequently was linked to Lucido through the Wolverine Golf Club, long suspected by authorities as a vehicle for money laundering and illegal gambling in Detroit.
Public records reveal Karam signed the original incorporation papers in for the club, along with Sam P. Lucido, whose uncle, Salvatore "Sam" Lucido, was identified in U. Senate hearings as a gambling boss in the Detroit Mafia.
Beginning in the last week of Decemberthe FBI ran court-approved wiretaps on Wolverine Golf Club phones for days; and inthe government indicted several members of the Lucido family on gambling and money laundering charges.
All were acquitted during a highly publicized trial. Karam, who had long since sold his club interest, was not charged. When Manni pleaded guilty to the firearm charge inhis attorney on the case was Sebastian Lucido, who is now a state district judge in Michigan. Karam refused to address suspicions about his ties to organized crime, referring questions to his son and attorney, Kenneth.
When contacted by ESPN. I talk to him 10 times a day. I'll tell you the truth, I have the utmost respect for him. If government agents had been tapping the phones of Manni and Karam in fallthey might have overheard a call or two from an interesting location -- the legal sports gambling capital of the country. Las Vegas By early in the football season, the smart guys along the glitzy Las Vegas Strip were already voicing suspicions about Toledo games.
But as a precaution, the 10 sports books affiliated with MGM Mirage didn't accept bets on Toledo's final eight games. Last summer, Kenny White of Las Vegas Sports Consultants, which makes the early betting lines used by most sports books and offshore gambling sites, also alerted the state gaming board to chatter on Toledo games.
It took a while for word to filter back to the campus, but gambling officials in Las Vegas were voicing suspicions about Toledo football games early in the season. But, according to Jerry Markling, chief of enforcement for the state gaming board, "We never were able to talk to this guy.
He also said state gaming officials never contacted the FBI about their suspicions. He insisted he wasn't the gambler in question, but said he knows who made the big wager. And he firmly suspects that gambler is the link to his legal troubles, noting that the sizable wager came just before the FBI started a wiretap on his phone.