List of largest Canadian cities by census - Wikipedia
Educational Attainment of the United States: March and See p .. prepared to help meet the need for a Index to Selected Census Re- ports air. Data are shown by country of origin and destination, and Customs Montreal,. Canada, August 22, , and in a revised version before the Associa-. of air and water transportation data are . tial air service point must meet the ''fit, willing Source: International Civil Aviation Organization, Montreal, Canada, Civil Aviation 1, 1, 1, 1, Owned and/or leased with drivers. The history of Montreal, located in Quebec, Canada, spans about 8, years. At the time of Montreal's population surpassed one million in the early s. . to establish chambers of commerce called bourses and meet regularly to discuss their concerns. Peopling the North American City: Montreal,
Often with no knowledge of the English language and with little formal education, many of the immigrants were compelled to accept low-wage manual-labor jobs, and were frequently exploited by the middlemen who acted as intermediaries between them and the prospective employers.
Tuberculosis and other communicable diseases were a constant health threat for the immigrant families that were compelled by economic circumstances to live in these dwellings.
Other immigrant families lived in single-family abodes, which was more typical in areas outside of the enclaves of the large Northeastern cities, and other parts of the country as well. An estimated 49 per cent of Italians who migrated to the Americas between when return migration statistics began and did not remain in the United States. The Italian male immigrants in the Little Italies were most often employed in manual labor and were heavily involved in public works, such as the construction of roads, railway tracks, sewers, subways, bridges and the first skyscrapers in the northeastern cities.
As early as90 percent of New York City's public works employees were Italian.
Many established small businesses in the Little Italies to satisfy the day-to-day needs of fellow immigrants. A New York Times article from provides a glimpse into the status of Italian immigration at the turn of the century.
Of the half million Italians that are in the United States, aboutlive in the city, and including those who live in Brooklyn, Jersey City, and the other suburbs the total number in the vicinity is estimated at aboutAfter learning our ways they become good, industrious citizens.
They are laborers; toilers in all grades of manual work; they are artisans, they are junkmen, and here, too, dwell the rag pickers There is a monster colony of Italians who might be termed the commercial or shop keeping community of the Latins. Here are all sorts of stores, pensions, groceries, fruit emporiums, tailors, shoemakers, wine merchants, importers, musical instrument makers There are notaries, lawyers, doctors, apothecaries, undertakers There are more bankers among the Italians than among any other foreigners except the Germans in the city.
Missouri - Wikipedia
Henry to write a letter in October to the Bishop John J. Clency of SligoIreland ; warning: The Italians are more economic, can live on poor fare and consequently can afford to work for less wages than the ordinary Irishman The Brooklyn Eagle in a article addressed the same reality: But it is the Italian now that does the work.
Then came the Italian carpenter and finally the mason and the bricklayer In spite of the economic hardship of the immigrants, civil and social life flourished in the Italian American neighborhoods of the large Northeastern cities. Italian theater, band concerts, choral recitals, puppet shows, mutual-aid societies, and social clubs were available to the immigrants. The festa involved an elaborate procession through the streets in honor of a patron saint or the Virgin Mary in which a large statue was carried by a team of men, with musicians marching behind.
Followed by food, fireworks and general merriment, the festa became an important occasion that helped give the immigrants a sense of unity and common identity. An American teacher who had studied in Italy, Sarah Wool Moore was so concerned with grifters luring immigrants into rooming houses or employment contracts in which the bosses got kickbacks that she pressed for the founding of the Society for the Protection of Italian Immigrants often called the Society for Italian Immigrants.
The Society published lists of approved living quarters and employers. Later, the organization began establishing schools in work camps to help adult immigrants learn English. The schools focused on teaching phrases that workers needed in their everyday tasks. Among these was Sister Francesca Cabriniwho founded schools, hospitals and orphanages. She was canonized as the first American saint in Hundreds of parishes were founded by the St.
Charles missionaries to serve the needs of the Italian communities. ByItalians had founded Italian Catholic churches and 41 parochial schools, served by priests and nuns, 2 Catholic seminaries and 3 orphanages. They were drawn there by opportunities in agriculture, fishing, mining, railroad construction, lumbering and other activities underway at the time.
Oftentimes, the immigrants contracted to work in these areas of the country as a condition for payment of their passage. It was not uncommon, especially in the South, for the immigrants to be subjected to economic exploitation, hostility and sometimes even violence.
A number of towns, such as Roseto, Pennsylvania,  Tontitown, Arkansas,  and Valdese, North Carolina  were founded by Italian immigrants during this era.
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A number of major business ventures were founded by Italian Americans. Amadeo Giannini originated the concept of branch banking to serve the Italian American community in San Francisco.
He founded the Bank of Italy, which later became the Bank of America. His bank also provided financing to the film industry developing on the West Coast at the time. An Italian immigrant, Italo Marciony Marcioniis credited with inventing the earliest version of an ice cream cone in Another Italian immigrant, Giuseppe Bellancabrought with him in an advanced aircraft design, which he began producing.
It was Charles Lindbergh 's first choice for his flight across the Atlantic, but other factors ruled this out; however, one of Bellanca's planes, piloted by Cesare Sabelli and George Pond, made one of the first non-stop trans-Atlantic flights in An Italian immigrant, Attilio Piccirilliand his five brothers carved the Lincoln Memorialwhich they began in and completed in Italian construction workers helped build Washington's Union Station, considered one of the most beautiful in the country, which was begun in and completed in The six statues that decorate the station's facade were sculpted by Andrew Bernasconi between and Many Italian operatic singers and conductors were invited to perform for American audiences, most notably, tenor Enrico Caruso.
The premiere of the opera La Fanciulla del West on December 10,with conductor Toscanini and tenor Caruso, and with the composer Giacomo Puccini in attendance, was a major international success as well as an historic event for the entire Italian American community. Rudolph Valentino was one of the first great film icons.Lackawanna Cut-Off - Part 19: Roadways Under and Over the Cut-Off
Dixieland jazz music had a number of important Italian American innovators, the most famous being Nick LaRocca of New Orleans, whose quintet made the first jazz recording in Ralph DePalma won the Indianapolis in Italian Americans became increasingly involved in politics, government and the labor movement. Andrew Longino was elected Governor of Mississippi in Numerous Italian Americans were at the forefront in fighting for worker's rights in industries such as the mining, textiles and garment industries, the most notable among these being Arturo GiovannittiCarlo Tresca and Joseph Ettor.
The Italian American community wholeheartedly supported the war effort and its young men, both American-born and Italian-born, enlisted in large numbers in the American Army. Another Italian Americans 83 Italian born were awarded the Distinguished Service Crossthe second highest decoration.
English was now the language most commonly heard on the streets of the Little Italies. Women found jobs as civil servants, secretaries, dressmakers, and clerks. With better paying jobs they moved to more affluent neighborhoods outside of the Italian enclaves.
The Great Depression —39 had a major impact on the Italian American community, and temporarily reversed some of the earlier gains made. Many unemployed men and a few women found jobs on President Franklin D. In the s and s Italian Americans contributed significantly to American life and culture via, politics, music, film, the arts, sports, the labor movement and business.
He was the first Catholic to receive a major party presidential nomination, as Democratic candidate for president in He lost Protestant strongholds in the South, but energize the Democratic vote in immigrant centers across the entire North.
Angelo Rossi was mayor of San Francisco in — In —34 Ferdinand Pecora led a Senate investigation of the Wall Street Crash ofwhich exposed major financial abuses, and spurred Congress to rein in the banking industry.
The Metropolitan Opera continued to flourish under the leadership of Giulio Gatti-Casazzawhose tenure continued until Rosa Ponselle and Dusolina Gianninidaughters of Italian immigrants, performed regularly at the Metropolitan Opera and became internationally known.
Ruggiero Riccia child prodigy born of Italian immigrant parents, gave his first public performance in at the age of 10, and had a long international career as a concert violinist.
Popular singers of the period included Russ Columbowho established a new singing style that influenced Frank Sinatra and other singers that followed.
Other Italian American musicians and performers, such as Jimmy Durantewho later achieved fame in movies and television, were active in vaudeville. The film industry of this era included Frank Caprawho received three Academy Awards for directing. Italian American cartoonists were responsible for some of the most popular animated characters: The voice of Snow White was provided by Adriana Caselottia year-old soprano. Open Tournaments in Pete DePaolo won the Indianapolis in Tony Canzoneri won the lightweight boxing championship in Joe DiMaggiowho was destined to become one of the most famous players in baseball history, began playing for the New York Yankees in Hank Luisetti was a three time All-American basketball player at Stanford University from to Louis Zamperinithe American distance runnercompeted in the Olympicsand later became the subject of the bestselling book Unbroken by Laura Hillenbrandpublished inand a movie of the same title.
Most of the newcomers were American-born, but many Irish and German immigrants arrived in the late s and s. As a majority were Catholicthey set up their own religious institutions in the state, which had been mostly Protestant. Also, there Also, there is no source given to show that most of Missouri's German immigrants were Catholic.
Sources should be given for both of these claims. Many settled in cities, where they created a regional and then state network of Catholic churches and schools. Nineteenth-century German immigrants created the wine industry along the Missouri River and the beer industry in St. Most Missouri farmers practiced subsistence farming before the American Civil War.
The majority of those who held slaves had fewer than five each. Plantersdefined by some historians as those holding twenty slaves or more, were concentrated in the counties known as " Little Dixie ", in the central part of the state along the Missouri River. The tensions over slavery chiefly had to do with the future of the state and nation. The convention voted decisively to remain within the Union.
Pro-Southern Governor Claiborne F. Jackson ordered the mobilization of several hundred members of the state militia who had gathered in a camp in St. Alarmed at this action, Union General Nathaniel Lyon struck first, encircling the camp and forcing the state troops to surrender.
Lyon directed his soldiers, largely non-English-speaking German immigrantsto march the prisoners through the streets, and they opened fire on the largely hostile crowds of civilians who gathered around them. Soldiers killed unarmed prisoners as well as men, women and children of St. Louis in the incident that became known as the " St. These events heightened Confederate support within the state.
Governor Jackson appointed Sterling Pricepresident of the convention on secession, as head of the new Missouri State Guard.
In the face of Union General Lyon's rapid advance through the state, Jackson and Price were forced to flee the capital of Jefferson City on June 14, In the town of Neosho, MissouriJackson called the state legislature into session.
They enacted a secession ordinance. However, even under the Southern view of secession, only the state convention had the power to secede. Since the convention was dominated by unionists, and the state was more pro-Union than pro-Confederate in any event, the ordinance of secession adopted by the legislature is generally given little credence.
The Confederacy nonetheless recognized it on October 30, With the elected governor absent from the capital and the legislators largely dispersed, the state convention was reassembled with most of its members present, save 20 that fled south with Jackson's forces.
The convention declared all offices vacant, and installed Hamilton Gamble as the new governor of Missouri. President Lincoln's administration immediately recognized Gamble's government as the legal Missouri government. The federal government's decision enabled raising pro-Union militia forces for service within the state as well as volunteer regiments for the Union Army. After winning victories at the battle of Wilson's Creek and the siege of Lexington, Missouri and suffering losses elsewhere, the Confederate forces retreated to Arkansas and later Marshall, Texasin the face of a largely reinforced Union Army.
Though regular Confederate troops staged some large-scale raids into Missouri, the fighting in the state for the next three years consisted chiefly of guerrilla warfare.
Anderson made use of quick, small-unit tactics. Pioneered by the Missouri Partisan Rangers, such insurgencies also arose in portions of the Confederacy occupied by the Union during the Civil War. Historians have portrayed stories of the James brothers' outlaw years as an American "Robin Hood" myth. Louis was the largest and busiest train station in the world when it opened in Child shoe workers in Kirksville, Missouri Photographed by Lewis Hine as part of the Progressive Era fight against child labor.
Twentieth century The Progressive Era s to s saw numerous prominent leaders from Missouri trying to end corruption and modernize politics, government and society. Joseph "Holy Joe" Folk was a key leader who made a strong appeal to middle class and rural evangelical Protestants.
Folk was elected governor as a progressive reformer and Democrat in the election. He promoted what he called "the Missouri Idea", the concept of Missouri as a leader in public morality through popular control of law and strict enforcement. He successfully conducted antitrust prosecutions, ended free railroad passes for state officials, extended bribery statutes, improved election laws, required formal registration for lobbyists, made racetrack gambling illegal, and enforced the Sunday-closing law.
He helped enact Progressive legislation, including an initiative and referendum provision, regulation of elections, education, employment and child labor, railroads, food, business, and public utilities. A number of efficiency-oriented examiner boards and commissions were established during Folk's administration, including many agricultural boards and the Missouri library commission.
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The expansion of railroads to the West transformed Kansas City into a major transportation hub within the nation. The growth of the Texas cattle industry along with this increased rail infrastructure and the invention of the refrigerated boxcar also made Kansas City a major meatpacking center, as large cattle drives from Texas brought herds of cattle to Dodge City and other Kansas towns.
There, the cattle were loaded onto trains destined for Kansas City, where they were butchered and distributed to the eastern markets. The first half of the twentieth century was the height of Kansas City's prominence and its downtown became a showcase for stylish Art Deco.