Relationship between the three tiers of government in Nigeria ▷ posavski-obzor.info
Foreign relations[show]. Minister of Foreign Affairs; Diplomatic missions. of Nigeria · to Nigeria · Passport · Visa requirements · Other countries · Atlas · v · t · e . The federal government of Nigeria is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive Nigeria is a federal republic, with executive power exercised by the president. Three of the most prominent perspectives shared on the rise of these radical Put in political context, it means the separation of religion and government. Each believes it has a special relationship with God that excludes other religion. In many of the studies carried out on the activities of Boko Haram in Nigeria, there is. The Nigerian government structure is made up of three tiers, which are the but they also collaborate in certain respects, especially when it has to do with.
Forms of Government
Politicians genuinely focused their lapses in the polity. It achieved for herself a republican status by shaking off the last vestiges of colonial authority. However, despite the violent violation of its provisions, the constitution remained the subsequent administrations military or otherwise. Military regime, [ edit ] The breakdown of law and order which occurred in the period under review would not be attributed to any defect in the Nigerian legal system.
Boko Haram and the Nigerian State: a Different Perspective
Corrupt practices both in the body politic and all aspects of Nigerian life eroded efficiency and progress. There were 8 coups generally five were successful and 3 were unsuccessful. Seal of the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
The president is elected through universal suffrage. The metamorphosis of Boko Haram into a terrorist group started with the investigation carried out by members of the Nigerian Police force in into its activities. Consequently, a joint military task force operation was launched against the group and by 30 July, more than people had been killed mostly Boko Haram member and police stations, prisons, government offices, schools and churches had been destroyed Adesoji Subsequently, the leader of the group, Yusuf was arrested and died in custody.
Equally contributory was the extra-judicial killing of Mohammed Yusuf in police custody in July which led to the enthronement of the more radicalized members of the group headed by Abubakar Shekau. In fact, those who were initially interested in negotiation with the Nigerian government were killed by the security forces in an effort to crush the group entirely.
Boko Haram carried out its first terrorist attack in Borno state in January claiming the lives of four people. In June of the same year, its new leader Abubakar Shekau instructed members of the group to commence retaliatory target of security forces and traitors but to spare civilians.
This dramatic change of events was the watershed of a chain reaction of suicide attacks that extended beyond Borno State for the first time. In September, Boko Haram broke of its members out of prison in Maiduguri along with over other prisoners.
Since then, Boko Haram has increased the frequency and intensity of its attack with increased suicide bombings and assassinations. Many believe that Boko Haram is leading an armed insurgency against corruption, abusive security forces and economic disparity in northern Nigeria security forces and economic disparity in northern Nigeria and feeding off tension that have existed between Muslim dominated north and Christian dominated south of Nigeria.
Inwith improved operational capabilities, Boko Haram launched series of attacks against both soft targets and security posts like the one in June, killing 6 police officers at the Abuja police headquarters.
The group carried out attacks inkilling At the end ofBoko Haram maintained a steady rate of attack with individuals, groups, security forces and religious leaders as prime targets.
The implementation of the emergency rule in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe states in Nigeria marked a turning point in Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. In Kano, on 20 January, Boko Haram carried out a deadly assault on police building killing Given the upsurge in the success recorded by the group against the upsurge in the success recorded by the group against security forces, many began to question the loyalty of the members of the Nigerian security force.
This came to a head on 8 Januarywhen the Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan announced that Boko Haram had, in fact, infiltrated the army and the police, as well as membership of the government. Unfortunately, the role of and abuses by this security force conspired to worsen the dire security condition in the area. In addition to the failure of the JTF to protect lives and property, it lost the trust of the people an important resource in the battle against the insurgent groupas communities were also abused by the armed forces.
Also, the high-handedness with which the members of the JTF prosecuted the fight against the insurgency helped to diffuse membership of the group from urban centres to the rural areas, enhancing an increased collateral damage. The year witnessed the introduction of a new dimension to its insurgent activities by Boko Haram. Early into the year, the conflict spilled over the national borders to involve all four geographically contiguous countries in the sub-region namely Cameroun, Chad, Niger and Nigeria.
Added to this innovation, is the fact that Boko Haram in association with its splinter group Ansani, was linked to a number of kidnappings. The group kidnapped on different occasions seven French taunts in north of Cameroun in February, a French priest and other eight French citizens and obtained ransom payments for their release Bureau of Counterterrorism Furthermore, the increased insecurity in north-east Nigeria led the government to extend the state of emergency in May This development was met by increased tension in the three states affected Adamawa, Borno and Yobe as Boko Haram hightened the tempo of its insurgent activities.
As such, the total number of internally displaced persons increased fromto ,; an increase of per cent. Thousands of others fled the country Adrian The most notorious act of Boko Haram so far took place in Aprilwhen girls from Chibok town in Borno state were kidnapped.
Although over 50 of them managed to escape, the incident brought the group pervasive global attention. Within the same period, Boko Haram announced the formation of Islamic Caliphate which included Gwoza, a strategic town north-eastern Nigeria.
The town of Bama, 70 kilometres from Maiduguri was equally captured increasing the reach of the new caliphate. Despite the aggression of the Nigerian security forces against Boko Haram and suspected collaborators sincethe group continues to recruit new members. The upward trend in violence since then suggests that the more security forces have intervened, the worse the crisis has become. Bulking the Trend At the start ofBoko Haram controlled about 20 local government areas in north-eastern Nigeria a territory the size of Belgium.
Assisted by its foreign allies, the Nigerian army has declared in recent times that it had pushed back the insurgent group out of all but three local government areas in Bornu State Braun President Jonathan was criticized for not doing enough to tackle the insurgency in the north-east. In a pre-election campaign, his main challenger Mohammadu Buhari chance was boosted by a reputation for toughness gained when he was military ruler of Nigeria between and Indeed, more than 13, people have been killed and some 1.
In addition, cross-border attack launched from Boko Haram strongholds in Nigeria have threatened to destabilize neighbouring countries of Cameroun, Chad and Niger in the sub-region with increased security threats.The War Against Boko Haram (Part 3)
To combat this menace, a sub-regional coalition force supported by the African Union Force was created. After series of negotiations, on 30 Novembera coalition force made up of soldiers from Benin, Cameroun, Chad, Niger and Nigeria was formed. Apart from the foregoing, on March 6,the African Union endorsed the creation of an additional regional force of up to 10, soldiers to join the fight against Boko Haram.
These forces have been particularly active in the Gamboru area of Nigeria on the border with Cameroun. A parallel joint Niger-Chad offensive retook Damasake from the insurgent group on March 27, Nossiter This came in the wake of the announcement by the Nigerian military that its troops recaptured the town of Gwoza from Boko Haram on March 20, Gwoza is important to the extent that it was from this town the insurgents declared their caliphate in While on the one hand the declaration could be seen as an attempt by the group to rescue its sinking ship given the fact that its previous allegiance was with al Qaedaon the other, it has the potential to raise the specter of violence and a stronger propaganda campaign that the Nigerian army, even with its influx of new weapons and African Union support, is much less equipped to combat.
Two weeks before the rescheduled elections in Nigeria, Boko Haram was said to have suffered more than it had for years Braun Though there was public relief that the insurgency was being blunted by the change in fortune for the group, it was unclear how effective the military operation had been.
The rapid chains of success by the Nigerian army in partnership with its allies left many Nigerian wondering why it took until the final days of the election campaign to begin containing the insurgent group. Many question how the government did in a few weeks what it could not for the last several years.
An important lesson should be drawn from previous experience by the Nigerian forces in dealing with Boko Haram. It is that after the declaration of the state of emergency in the north-east, Boko Haram went underground only to re-emerge later with more sinister tactics.
Once again, the coalition forces should be mindful of a repeat performance.
Relationship between the three tiers of government in Nigeria
The narrative is that each sub-unit could resort to guerrilla warfare to prosecute the ideology of the group. Consequently, Boko Haram would retreat from the rural areas where it currently faces intensive bombardment by the allied forces to the urban areas where they would regroup as multiple cells, which eventually would become the conduits for insurgency.
There is no evidence, whatsoever, that Boko Haram has been defeated but it has been driven out of some territories. In the past, it melted into the country side and the slums of urban centres where it regrouped and eventually resurfaced. Revenue sharing or allocation This means that there are taxes that are collected by one tier of government on behalf of another. It mostly occurs when the power and responsibilities for certain areas are shifted between tiers, like during the "power sharing" times.
It is common to have revenue sharing or allocation between the federal government and one of the other tiers. It means that they are only responsible for issues on the local level. It is also known that the federal government is empowered by the Constitution and can have a significant impact on local government matters. The big impact of the federal government on the local government matters was the cause of dispute between many Nigerians.
In the last few years, there were some issues in the relationship between the local and federal governments. And there are still issues!
The biggest problem is that the federal government may have some functions that do not belong to it. Many Nigerians argue that federal government may take advantage of some areas that are under the power of the local government, like culture or rural development. But who is right and who is wrong?