Recent moves toward normalizing trade between India and Pakistan augur well for both the the warehouse reached full posavski-obzor.info This in turn has. In fact, a steady upward trend in their bilateral relations has been one of the more This study traces the evolution of Iran-India relations from to the present era. The implications for Pakistan of the close cooperation between the two states, XXXI, No. 12, December p. Sujit Chatterjee, “India, Iran sign. Informal trade continues to thrive between India and Pakistan despite recent measures undertaken by the two countries to normalize trade and.
A terrorist attack on 29 July at Srinigar 's city centre, Budshah Chowk, killed two and left more than 17 people injured. Most of those injured were media journalists. No Terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack by four heavily armed terrorists on 18 Septembernear the town of Uri in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, killed 18 and left more than 20 people injured. It was reported as "the deadliest attack on security forces in Kashmir in two decades".
India blamed Pakistan for carrying out the attacks, an allegation which Pakistan strongly denied and one that brought both nations to the brink of a nuclear confrontation in — However, international peace efforts ensured the cooling of tensions between the two nuclear-capable nations.
The plane was hijacked on 24 December approximately one hour after take off and was taken to Amritsar airport and then to Lahore in Pakistan. After refueling the plane took off for Dubai and then finally landed in KandaharAfghanistan. Under intense media pressure, New Delhi complied with the hijackers' demand and freed Maulana Masood Azhar from its captivity in return for the freedom of the Indian passengers on the flight.
The decision, however, cost New Delhi dearly. Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in Karachilater became the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammedan organisation which has carried out several terrorist acts against Indian security forces in Kashmir. The Fort houses an Indian military unit and a high-security interrogation cell used both by the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Indian Army. The terrorists successfully breached the security cover around the Red Fort and opened fire at the Indian military personnel on duty killing two of them on spot.
The attack was significant because it was carried out just two days after the declaration of the cease-fire between India and Pakistan. The attack was carried out on 25 Septemberjust few days after state elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir. Two identical letters found on both the terrorists claimed that the attack was done in retaliation for the deaths of thousands of Muslims during the Gujarat riots.
Though no terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attacks, Mumbai Police and RAW suspected Lashkar-e-Toiba 's hand in the twin blasts. Before the terrorists could reach the main disputed sitethey were shot down by Indian security forces. One Hindu worshipper and two policemen were injured during the incident. This was the first major military standoff between India and Pakistan since the Kargil War in The military buildup was initiated by India responding to a Indian Parliament attack and the Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly attack.
At least 68 people were killed, mostly Pakistani civilians but also some Indian security personnel and civilians. The sole surviving gunman Ajmal Kasab who was arrested during the attacks was found to be a Pakistani national. This fact was acknowledged by Pakistani authorities.
Islamabad resisted the claims and demanded evidence. India provided evidence in the form of interrogations, weapons, candy wrappers, Pakistani Brand Milk Packets, and telephone sets. They also said that, given the sophistication of the attacks, the perpetrators "must have had the support of some official agencies in Pakistan".
India and weapons of mass destructionPakistan and weapons of mass destructionand nuclear race India has a long history of development of nuclear weapons.
InIndia's nuclear program was aimed at the development of nuclear weapons, with Indira Gandhi carefully overseeing the development of weapons. Starting preparations for a nuclear test inIndia finally exploded its first nuclear bomb in Pokhran test range, codename Smiling Buddhain No official announcements of such cold tests were made by Pakistan government.
Ina mutual understanding was reached between the two countries in which each pledged not to attack nuclear facilities.
Agreements on cultural exchanges and civil aviation were also initiated, also in Pokhran-II which invited Pakistan to follow the latter's step and performed its own atomic tests see: Talks and other confidence building measures After the war, Pakistan and India made slow progress towards the normalisation of relations. They signed the Simla Agreementby which India would return all Pakistani personnel over 90, and captured territory in the west, and the two countries would "settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations.
The Prime Ministers of Pakistan and India met twice and the foreign secretaries conducted three rounds of talks. In Junethe foreign secretaries identified eight "outstanding issues" around which continuing talks would be focused. The conflict over the status of Kashmir, referred by India as Jammu and Kashmiran issue since Independence, remains the major stumbling block in their dialogue. It however refuses to abide by the previous part of the resolution, which calls for it to vacate all territories occupied.
In Septemberthe talks broke down over the structure of how to deal with the issues of Kashmir, and peace and security. Pakistan advocated that the issues be treated by separate working groups. India responded that the two issues be taken up along with six others on a simultaneous basis. Attempts to restart dialogue between the two nations were given a major boost by the February meeting of both Prime Ministers in Lahore and their signing of three agreements.
A subsequent military coup in Pakistan that overturned the democratically elected Nawaz Sharif government in October of the same year also proved a setback to relations.
The talks fell through. On 20 Junewith a new government in place in India, both countries agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war. Manmohan Singh become prime minister of India in Maythe Punjab provincial Government declared it would develop Gahhis place of birth, as a model village in his honour and name a school after him. There are two main reasons for this: Moreover, coming under intense international pressure, Islamabad was compelled to take actions against the militants' training camps on its territory.
Inthe two countries also agreed upon decreasing the number of troops present in the region. Under pressure, Kashmiri militant organisations made an offer for talks and negotiations with New Delhi, which India welcomed.
India's Border Security Force blamed the Pakistani military for providing cover-fire for the terrorists whenever they infiltrated into Indian territory from Pakistan.
Pakistan in turn has also blamed India for providing support to terrorist organisations operating in Pakistan such as the BLA. InPakistan's information minister, Sheikh Rashid, was alleged to have run a terrorist training camp in in N. The Pakistani government dismissed the charges against its minister as an attempt to hamper the ongoing peace process between the two neighbours.
Both India and Pakistan have launched several mutual confidence-building measures CBMs to ease tensions between the two. These include more high-level talks, easing visa restrictions, and restarting of cricket matches between the two. The implications for Pakistan of the close cooperation between the two states, both being its neighbours, have also been discussed. However, it did not result in a permanent rupture in Iran-India relations, and the two sides, even before the establishment of formal diplomatic relations, signed an Air Transport Agreement in November This was evident from the fact that Iran was the first country to recognise Pakistan; it established diplomatic relations with Pakistan in May and Pakistani Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan, visited Iran in May ; and the Shah of Iran was the first Head of State to pay a state visit to Pakistan, in March But even such high level visits could not bring about a positive change in Iran-India relations; rather, they highlighted the political gulf between the two.
During the s, therefore, Iran-India relations remained confined to non-political spheres like trade and commerce. This happened during the Pakistan-India war. Iran unequivocally condemned what it saw as Indian aggression against Pakistan and promised every possible help to Pakistan.
The warming trend in Iran-India relations thus came to an abrupt end. However, the last years of the sixties once again set the stage for improvement in Iran-India relations. Instead of helping its ally, Pakistan, the US imposed an embargo on both the adversaries, which, in effect, suggested a tilt against Pakistan.
India–Pakistan relations - Wikipedia
Iran had emerged as a powerful actor in global oil politics and a military force in the Persian Gulf, whereas India had emerged as the strategically pre-eminent power in South Asia.
Economic considerations were also there, pushing the two states closer. For India, which was in dire need of foreign capital and credit facilities for its massive industrialisation programme, close relations with petrodollar-rich states like Iran could be immensely beneficial.
Besides, it could also export its surplus reservoir of skilled manpower to earn foreign exchange. As the Shah had set before himself the task of industrialising Iran, there was a clear complementarity of interests. Iran could buy Indian technology, raw material, and manpower as it had surplus capital, particularly after the oil price hike in Indira Gandhi, to Iran in April-May During the visit, the second by an Indian Prime Minister, a basket of agreements were signed.
The warmth of Iran-India relations during this phase could be gauged from the fact that between October to Februarythe Shah visited India twice. Iran, which had always felt threatened by Soviet Communism, was much more critical of the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan than was India,32 which traditionally had very close relations with the Soviets.
In addition, with the establishment of clerical rule in Iran, the country veered off the path of secularism and the new dispensation in Tehran felt little motivation to cultivate ties with a secular country.
Indian radio reported on October 1,that India would send a group of nuclear engineers and scientists to Iran in November, who would inspect the Bushehr nuclear power plant to study the problems. Improvement of Iran-India Relations in the Early s During the early years of the s, due to emerging parallelism in political interests, the complementary economic and technological interests, and a shared perception about evolving geo-strategic environment,38 relations between India and Iran started improving.
However, the real impetus for improvement in their bilateral relations was provided by the post-Mujahideen situation in Afghanistan. The consolidation of power by the Taliban whom both India and Iran thought to be backed by Pakistan in Afghanistan was a major source of anxiety for New Delhi and Tehran, which drew them closer as both found their interests being threatened by the Taliban.
In fact, India used the strong Iranian reservations about Taliban as a means of policy convergence on Afghanistan. The convergence of interests in Afghanistan created a goodwill that was built upon by various high level visits between India and Iran during the early years of the last decade that provided them with an opportunity to have consultations on important strategic issues, and thus helped them come closer.
The sides reaffirmed their commitment to strengthen transport and transit cooperation. They also agreed to actively promote scientific and technological cooperation, including among others, joint research projects, short and long-tern training courses and exchange of related information on regular bases. It was a clear signal of the high importance India attached to its relations with Iran and its assessment that Iran was a vital player in regional inter-state relations and security arrangements.
Besides, they agreed to explore opportunities for cooperation in defence, including training and exchange of visits. In addition to the Afghanistan factor, which provided the initial impetus for the upward trend in Iran-India relations and which remains there even after the ouster of the Taliban regime, as both continue to support the new dispensation in Kabul, certain other factors have been there, pushing the two countries closer to each other.
Energy Cooperation Energy cooperation between Iran and India has been the major incentive for two states to come closer. Iran with its abundant energy resources and India with its growing energy needs as a rapidly developing economy are natural partners. It has experienced a growing energy supply-demand gap as its domestic production of oil and gas has failed to keep pace with rising consumption needs.
Iran, on the other hand, is endowed with enormous energy resources, and is therefore keenly interested in exporting its surplus natural gas to India. In fact, it has the second largest natural gas reserves in the world after Russia, estimated at 23 trillion cubic meters. As far as the practical dimension of cooperation in this regard is considered, the two sides established a Joint Working Group JWG on energy transport inwith a view to determining how to make this complementarity work to the advantage of both sides.
The deal also envisaged Indian participation in the development of the Yadavaran and Jufeyr oilfields in Iran. More recently, Indian interest in the project seems to have waned, which many attribute to the US offer of civil nuclear energy to India. The US is believed to have demanded the abandonment of the project as one of the quid pro quos for the civil nuclear deal.
The Indian stance has led Pakistan and Iran to decide to go ahead with the project even without India. Prior to the disintegration of the Soviet Union, all business between India and Central Asia was conducted through Moscow.
However, India no longer enjoys that privileged access to Central Asia, and its overland trade with Central Asia has remained effectively sealed off due to the state of its hostile relations with Pakistan and uncertainties in Afghanistan.