Standards 1 | Healthy Schools | CDC
Describe the relationship between healthy behaviors and personal health. Identify examples of emotional, intellectual, physical, and social health. Standard 1- Essential Concepts. Describe the relationship between healthy behaviors and personal health. Identify examples of physical health. Jun 17, Identify that healthy behaviors impact personal health. Describe the relationship between healthy behaviors and personal health.
Female smoking is associated with distress and age elderly women are less likely to smoke than younger females. The prevalence of smoking among older women was traditionally low, which was not the case for younger women.
Cockerham [ 22 ] described dietary behavior as an important unhealthy lifestyle factor in Russia, especially among men.
Specifically, fruit and vegetable consumption was insufficient in almost all former Soviet Union countries; the percentage of people consuming fruits daily increased from In the late s, poverty was the main reason for insufficient intake of calories, protein, vegetables, and fruits in the elderly population. For example, many pensioners did not receive pensions for extended periods of time during — A report of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Service showed that poverty rates doubled and intakes of calories and protein and use of health services and medications declined significantly among affected pensioners.
Due to the lack of information and research on physical activity in Russia, the inclusion of this health behavior will shed some light on its effects on self-reported health, which has been neglected to date. Wolinsky and colleagues [ 25 ] showed that physical activity and exercise were significantly related to mortality and reduced deterioration in physical function.
The relationship between healthy behaviors and health outcomes among older adults in Russia
The benefit of exercise to health outcomes in elderly individuals has been demonstrated across ethnicity, gender, and geographic region. Physical activity and exercise have been shown to reduce the risks of disability and mortality, indicating the need to focus more attention on health promotion programs [ 26 ]. In a study comparing self-rated with objectively measured mobility in samples from various countries [ 27 ], Russians had the slowest walking speeds and Russian women aged 65—69 years had a high probability 0.
Thus, slow walkers had a high probability of reporting mobility difficulty. Physical activity is closely connected to functional limitation. Among elderly people, functional limitation is the most common factor leading to disability and further dependence on other members of society. Physical function and functional capacity reflect objective health status and are important for well-being and quality of life.
Low self-reported physical functioning has been associated with low personal autonomy at the individual level and with a range of health indicators, including mortality [ 28 ]. However, Dorynska et al. Cockerham [ 1229 ] emphasized that health-related habits and social perceptions of health in Russia reflect a communist cultural heritage. Practices embedded in the cultural context of communism include drinking, smoking, poor diet, lack of recreational exercise, and a passive approach to health.
A common attitude in Russia is that health depends more on the healthcare system than on individual behavior. This overestimation of the role of the state-owned health care system, which was highly centralized, free, and accessible to all citizens, diminishes the understanding of individual responsibility for personal health and lifestyle. The improvement of lifestyle in the aging population by promoting physical activity, healthy diet, and the restriction or cessation of alcohol and tobacco use may alleviate the burdens of healthcare systems by preventing health deterioration in older people.
Thus, estimation of the influence of lifestyle on health outcomes, especially in the elderly population, could become a relevant tool for policy makers for the prudent allocation of government healthcare resources. Also, the research depicts which of four risk factors has the most serious effect on self-rated health, which would enable decision makers to determine which aspects of lifestyle need more attention.
Theoretical background A large body of evidence has demonstrated that self-reported health assessment has high predictive validity for mortality, physical disability, and chronic disease status.
Furthermore, self-assessed health is a stronger predictor of mortality than physician-assessed health [ 73031 ]. Self-rated health is a valid and extensive measure of health.
Obviously, an individual's health status changes over time and a single measure is not capable of reflecting such change. Thus, the importance of self-rated health lies in the stability of its predictive power over time. This feature is also important because a single measure of self-rated health is more easily and less expensively obtained than assessments made by a clinician [ 7 ].
In addition, the four health behaviors examined in this study are associated with different disease risks, and disentanglement of these relationships can be difficult. Thus, self-reported health is a good outcome measure that generally depicts how respondents describe their health status.
This model describes relationships between health inputs and health outcomes. Individuals are assumed to have a utility function, where utility depends on a stock of health and the consumption of commodities. Unlike medical care, health cannot be purchased directly. It can be produced using time and health-improving efforts e. As health behaviors can affect the stock of health, their inputs must be taken into account in the model.
Optimality can be reached by making trade-offs between options that increase utility by providing direct satisfaction in the short term and those that increase utility by improving health in the long term.
This model can be expressed by the following equations: The influence of health behaviors on health is not immediate. Behaviors such as unhealthy dietary practices can influence current utility, but damage health and reduce health stock in the long term.
By contrast, healthy habits such as regular exercise may decrease current utility e.
Furthermore, heterogeneity in health preferences must be taken into account. The investment in health realized by any individual depends on initial endowment and decisions about engaging in healthy behaviors [ 33 ]. Study aims This study was conducted to investigate relationships between self-rated health and health behaviors alcohol consumption, smoking, dietary behavior, and physical activity among older men and women in Russia. A multistage cluster sampling strategy was used in Russia to obtain a nationally representative sample including all seven federal districts.
Households were classified into one of two mutually exclusive categories: Wave 1 also included new respondents from southern federal districts of the European portion of Russia and from the Asian portion of the country. Health behavior measures This study focused on four behavioral measures of risk: Physical activity involving sports activities such as jogging, running, swimming, heavy lifting, fitness, gym attendance, and rapid cycling and work activities such as chopping, farm work, and digging with a spade or shovel was classified as vigorous.
Activities such as housecleaning, washing clothes by hand, stretching, dancing, gardening, and bicycling at regular pace were classified as moderate. Respondents were asked to report the number of days a week on which they engaged in moderate and vigorous physical activity as part of work, sport, and leisure activities, and the average time spent on these activities per day. Asking people about the type, frequency, and duration of physical activity can be a relevant and reliable tool for the evaluation of the level of physical activity in a population.
Dietary behavior can also be an important factor in achieving a healthy lifestyle. WHO guidelines [ 37 ] use the threshold value of five servings of fruits and vegetables per day to distinguish healthy from unhealthy diets. Smoking behavior was characterized by asking respondents whether they currently used tobacco products; thus, respondents were classified as current smokers including daily or less frequent smoking and non-smokers.
The current smoker variable was dichotomized as 1 current smoker and 0 non-smoker accordingly. In Russia, alcohol consumption may pose the most significant risk among the four factors considered in this study [ 2238 ]. The most thorough way to assess this behavior is by summing the number of alcoholic drinks respondents report consuming per day during a week. The SAGE data do not specify alcoholic beverage type e.
Maximum alcohol intake for men and women differed among countries, but was most commonly 3 unitsa per day for men and 2 units per day for women. We used the International Center for Alcohol Policies ICAP recommended weekly intakes of 14 units for women and 21 units for men [ 39 ], as no clear norm has been established for the Russian Federation.
Knows basic skills and appropriate responses for various emergency encounters 5. Knows various forms of therapy e. Understands how technology is used in the health-care industry 1.
Knows forms of technology used in the four health occupations systems i.
HEC - Describe the relationship between healthy behaviors and personal health.
Understands ways in which technology is used in the health care industry e. Understands ways in which technology has changed health care 4. Understands how improvements in technology have affected patient diagnosis e. Knows scientific discoveries and breakthroughs that have been made in the field of health care 6. Understands the costs, benefits, and disadvantages of advanced health care technology e. Understands the components of the health care delivery system Level IV Grade 1.
Knows the service areas in health care e. Knows various processes that affect health care delivery e. Understands ways in which the settings of health care delivery systems have changed over time e. Understands how the evolution of health care practices, procedures, and philosophies has influenced the role of health care delivery systems in a variety of areas e. Understands the role of the government in the health care system e. Understands the roles and responsibilities of various members of health care systems and how they contribute to the function of the system e.
Knows relevant systems in the health care facility and how they function e. Knows uses for resources within and outside the health care facility e. Understands the role of continuous improvement and efficiency in the health care industry 1. Understands factors that influence the quality of health care services e. Understands the roles and responsibilities of individual members in a health care team and how they influence the delivery of quality health care 3.
Knows strategies for improving delivery of service to clients in the health care industry e. Knows activities and techniques that contribute to efficiency in health care facilities e.
Knows types of staff development that contribute to the improvement of health care services e. Knows measures used to control costs in health care e. Understands the relationship between the health care delivery system and the community 1. Knows characteristics of different health care providers e. Knows debates concerning current and proposed national health care policies e.
Knows current factors that have influenced the supply of health care personnel e. Knows ways in which social, political, and economic factors affect health care delivery in a health care agency e. Understands the principles of body mechanics for positioning, transferring, and transporting clients 1. Knows methods for positioning client to ensure comfort 2. Knows methods for safely transporting ill or injured people e.
Understands how center of gravity and base of support play in part in proper lifting techniques e. Understands the effects of movement, torque, tension, and elasticity on the human body 5.
Knows various transport and transfer equipment and their appropriate use e. Understands that it is important to reassure and inform clients of what to expect during an activity Health Maintenance Practices Standard 9.
Knows techniques to prevent the spread of illness and disease 1. Knows common infectious diseases present at school or home and details of the diseases e.
Knows that the spread of pathogens can be prevented by cleaning, disinfecting, or sterilizing Standard Knows conventional and alternative methods to promote and maintain personal health 1.