The association between poverty and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa remains contested. A better understanding of the relationship between the prevalence of. The association between poverty and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa remains contested. A better understanding of the relationship between. Download scientific diagram | Relationship between poverty and HIV/AIDS: a Strengthening the enabling environment for women and girls: What is the.
Most of the workers are single men unmarried or without their spouses. With their wages, usually ready availability of liquor, and peer support, they induce women into either short or longer-term sexual relations. Workers at the Katse Dam construction site in Bokong, Lesotho, were found to have seroprevalence rates nearly seven times as high as people in nearby villages. Tanzanian social scientist Gabriel Rugalema investigated the impact of AIDS in a village in the severely affected northwestern part of his country.
He wrote of people's views of the epidemic: Rather, they saw it in the wider context of other crises predating it. During and for a few years after World War II, the study area was struck by famine partly due to drought and partly due to rationing imposed by the British colonial government in Tanganyika. Most households had to dispose of their assets. This was a generalised hunger throughout Tanzania and the situation was made worse by the world oil price shock.
A few years later there was olushengo lwa Amin Amin's warthat is, the war between Uganda and Tanzania.
The Relationship Between Poverty and HIV/AIDS in Rural Thailand
Although the village is about 72 kilometers from the border it not only received some of the displaced people from the border villages but it suffered the economic disruption wrought by the war. Much of the period from has been characterized by poor national economic performance and consequently the decline of the coffee crop in the area.
The economic downturn has continued with only brief hiatuses in some years. Numerous studies from countries in Africa and India document the sexual networking and the high HIV prevalence along the truck routes. Both of these phenomena, as already emphasized, preceded structural adjustment programs but increased with the emphasis on an export-oriented growth.
In many countries, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, nothing could have been more inappropriate than decreasing access to health services, given the already very high rates of untreated STDs and non-specific bacterial and vaginal infections, a now recognized leading factor in the spread of HIV infection. Cutbacks in funding for public clinics reportedly also encouraged the reuse of disposable syringes, potentially contributing to HIV transmission.
Here we place a sample of the linkages in the context of structural shocks. Decades of changes in economic activity and gender relations have placed women in increasingly difficult situations.
Although poorly documented, the range and depth of women's responsibilities have increased during the era of AIDS. More active care-giving for sick and dying relatives has been added to the existing work load. Children girls first have been withdrawn from school, both to save on costs and to add to labor within the household.
Whether women received remittances from men working away from home, received "allowances", or earned income themselves, AIDS made the availability of cash more problematic. These costs are dis- investments to the family and survivors. Household food security is often affected in negative ways. In many parts of Africa, women lose all or most of the household assets after the death of a husband. Low incomes, dis-investment, constrained cash flow all place economic pressures on women.
Anecdotal evidence and some studies indicate that these pressures push a number of women into situations where sex is coerced in exchange for small cash or in-kind payments.Poverty Pushing Many Families to Neglect Children with HIV/AIDS
Along the Thailand-Burma border, many of the sex workers are young women, caught up in the "green harvest" in which their work is a means to repay loans made to their families by money lenders who recruit young women for the sex industry. Most of the young women return home HIV-positive.
Taken together, these and existing education, employment, legal, and other structural biases facing women, add to the shocks that have disrupted social institutions over the past decades.
Militarism and Armed Conflict Wars and civil violence have contributed to situations of increased susceptibility. Epidemiologic data is usually lacking in many of the areas of prolonged warfare or civil violence. It is worth noting, however, that literally all the countries of Eastern and Southern Africa have been engaged in or have experienced repercussions from wars or major civil violence since the mids.
It is in these regions of Africa that the epidemic is most severe. Warfare presents major opportunity costs for Third World countries.
Resources flow to arms and equipment purchases, military salaries, replacement costs, and hundreds of other large and small expenditures. Arguably, these resources in the mid and late s could have been going for desperately need improved access to health care, especially STD treatment and other forms of HIV prevention.
In many countries military expenditures in the s and today divert needed resources from health care including support for home health care as the epidemic means sharply increased needs. Displaced and refugee populations numbering in the hundreds of thousands and more have had their lives disrupted by military actions.
During the genocide in Rwanda, "'virtually every adult woman or girl past puberty who was spared from massacre by the militias had been raped' --along with many younger children. Many of these children have been abandoned. Life in refugee camps often is precarious for women and girls. For example, a high incidence of rape was reported among Somali refugees in Kenya in The Shock of Disillusionment Many of the shocks have been reviewed at aggregate levels.
Less evidence exists on what might be called sub-shocks, the repercussions of larger changes. For example, agricultural marketing reforms produced a ripple effect of shocks for market-oriented small-scale farmers: Reductions and delays or cutoffs in credit S Delays in supply of hybrid seeds and fertilizers; Disruptions in agricultural extension and veterinary advice; Delays in collection of crops; Crop losses for lack of storage; Delays in payment for crops.
Poverty is associated with vulnerability to severe diseases like HIV, through its effects on delaying access to health care and inhibiting treatment adherence Bates et al, cited in Ganyaza-Twalo and Seager Poor households may not necessarily have the financial resources to seek help from health centres, nor food security to enable members to adhere to their treatment.
It should be emphasised that poor people infected with HIV are considerably more likely to become sick and die faster than the non-poor since they are likely to be malnourished, in poor health, and lacking in health attention and medications FAO Therefore, lack of resources is significant cause of the delays in accessing health services by poor households which lead them to chronic illness because of HIV and AIDS. The relationship between HIV and AIDS and poverty is seen when HIV compromise health of an individual and because of poverty that individual lack resources to access health thereby leading to chronic illness or death.
More so, HIV increase financial constraints to a household already poverty stricken and it increases debts related to health. Household impact is one of the points at which AIDS and poverty demonstrate their intertwined relationship Piot et al cited Ganyaza-Twalo and Seager Assets are likely to be liquidated to pay for the costs of care. Sickness and caring for the sick prevent people from migrating to find additional work. In the longer term, poor households may never recover even their initial low standard of living UNDP Jooma, cited in Ganyaza-Twalo and Seager cited that, the number of Africans living below the poverty line less than 1 US dollar per day has almost doubled Page 3 of 9 from million in to million people today.
Africa: HIV/AIDS and Poverty, 10/31/00
Therefore, HIV is high in Africa as compared to other continents of the world as well as poverty. Therefore, driving force behind migratory movements is poverty. UNDP in the same vein eludes that, poverty especially rural poverty, and the absence of access to sustainable livelihoods, are factors in labour mobility of the population including cross border migration and acceleration of the urbanization process, which contributes to create the conditions that sustain HIV transmission.
However such situations widens the web of sex networking, and in this way it will facilitate the early rapid spread of HIV. In this way poverty and HIV are synergistic and symmetrical in nature because in this essence, poverty create a migration platform which at the end expose people to HIV infection because of long time away from sexual partners. Therefore, this means HIV reduces household income generation because labour will be diverted to care for the sick person.
Moreover, households often expend their savings and lose their assets in order to purchase medical care for sick members. Assets may have to be sold when many households are facing the same need, and Page 4 of 9 such distress sales are often ill-timed and at a loss. This lead to chronic poverty and it directly affect livelihoods. Women are more vulnerable than men to HIV infection because of, biological, cultural, lack of education, inheritance among other factors.
In the same vein FAO alludes that, in many places HIV infection rates are three to five times higher among young women than young men. Scott et al argues that, gender inequality and poverty deprives women of their ability to fulfil their socially designated responsibilities, and therefore debases them, often forcing them into prostitution which exposes them to HIV infection. Therefore, children raised in poor households face a large risk of achieving a low level of educational attainment and dropping out of school.
Women in Tanzania also have severely limited access to education, employment, credit, and transportation as a result northern coastal women—married and unmarried, young and old— are increasingly turning to sex work, exposing them to a high risk of HIV infection Mwambete and Justin-Temu This increases poverty in women which expose them in risk behaviour such as commercial sex.
This is because if women are denied to access education they will not find employment in a formal to cope with their basic needs also they will be vulnerable to sexual exploitation by men because of poverty.
ILO alludes that, poverty drives girls and women to exchange sex for food, and to resort to sex work for survival when they are excluded from formal sector employment and all other work options are too low-paying to cover their basic needs.
Therefore, commercial sex exposes women to infection and it is mostly necessitated by poverty. In this essence a link between HIV and AIDS and poverty is when poverty forces people to enter into risk behaviour in order to gain living. Therefore, poverty create reasons for women to practice commercial sex also because of poverty they can justify themselves for example women in Mkwaja village Tanzania in who were saying they accept that it is now the female burden to provide for their children, they said they risk dying from AIDS for the sake of our children Mwambete and Justin-Temu