They should make sure to place education high on the list. The deadline What is lacking is the political will to make the needed investments. of the educational act must be correlated to the level of development of a country, at a . As it can be seen from this study, the impact of the raising educa-. However, this has raised a number of questions such as: What is the precise relationship between development education and intercultural education? What do.
It seemed a small matter when a number of delegates suggested that this omission be corrected. Yet it became the major bone of contention in the Rome discussions. It quickly became apparent that, while some of those from Northern and Western countries were familiar with DE and tended to view sustainable development as the child of two conceptual parents development and environmental sustainabilitymany of those from Mediterranean countries or from the East had little familiarity with development education and tended to view sustainable development as an outgrowth from the environmentalist movement.
What seemed at first like a minor amendment became an ideological battle for the soul and political capital of the ESD concept. The shortened form of environmental education EE was capitalised to give it the status of a proper noun, while development education was clearly de-emphasised.
Yet, the conflict becomes more important than the compromise when two separate groups feel ownership of the concept of ESD to the point where they are in contention. However, he believes it is better to explore the diverse positions as such, because it is precisely the interplay between positions that generates critical thinking about them Despite development education and environmental education operating mostly within their own distinct sectors, they did not develop entirely without influences from the other.
There were a few who have addressed environmental issues in their DE work as well as some who have addressed development issues in their EE work.
Recent Theories of the Relationship between Education and Development
Yet it was more often the case that DE work was delivered with little reference to environmental sustainability, and that EE practitioners often neglected global development and inequalities. As the concept of sustainable development evolved, however, it became clear that these types of concepts cannot be easily separated.
Therefore, we need to move from a situation where DE and EE are seen as separate but occasionally overlapping to a situation where they are seen as integrally intertwined. This is the conceptual shift that we seek to explore here.
Development education and environmental issues The concept of development education DE emerged in the s from the work of international aid agencies and development non-governmental organisations NGOs who recognised the need to educate the developed world about issues of poverty and injustice in the Third World Regan, National committees on development education also began to emerge in several countries.
Ireland was receptive to the DE message. There already existed a strong connection to developing countries through Irish missionary organisations and the Catholic Church strongly supported their initiatives. While DE traditionally focused on poverty and related issues, a number of authors and practitioners recognised the importance of the environmental link to human security.
In an Irish context, for example, the The development studies literature, from which DE drew some of its inspiration and content material, also included a growing focus on environmental issues. The United Nations Development Programme UNDPfor example, placed a growing emphasis on the relationship between the environment and development, as was evident in a number of Human Development Reports UNDP, ; ; ; ; that explicitly addressed the environment as a key theme.
Inthe United Nations included environmental sustainability as one of the eight Millennium Development Goals and, inthe White Paper on Irish Aid referred to the importance of environmental protection in supporting livelihoods of people in the developing world Irish Aid, b: Environmental education and development issues The emergence of the term environmental education EE can be traced back to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm, Sweden.
Why education is the key to development | World Economic Forum
The Belgrade Charter, produced in at the International Workshop on Environmental Education in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, provided a Global Framework for Environmental Education, stating that EE programmes should be interdisciplinary, involve active participation, have a global perspective, and consider both current and future situations.
In subsequent years principles, guidelines and actions for the implementation of EE were developed through the Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education, held in Tiblisi inand the International Congress in Moscow in While environmental education EE focused primarily on issues such as acid rain, pollution and depletion of natural resources, it broadened its remit to address development issues.
International conferences identified the root causes of many environmental problems in social, economic and cultural terms UNESCO, Speakers from developing countries at Stockholm in emphasised that the task of resolving environmental instability was second to providing more immediate needs such as food, shelter and healthcare: The relationship between the environment and poverty was further noted in the final report of the Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education in Tiblisi in Integrating development and environmental issues through ESD A major conceptual breakthrough came with the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development, otherwise known as the Brundtland Commission, which was established by the UN to re-examine global environmental and development problems and to suggest practical and realistic proposals to address them.
It identified three components to sustainable development: The work of the Brundtland Commission was followed up at the Rio Summit inwhich produced Agenda 21, a blueprint for sustainable development into the 21st century.
Chapter 36, Promoting Education, Public Awareness, and Training, focused on the role of ESD in providing access to quality basic education for all, building public awareness of sustainable development issues, reorienting existing education to incorporate sustainable development concerns and ensuring that training programmes for all job sectors reflect sustainable development practice.
The apparent tensions between DE and ESD The concept of education for sustainable development essentially combines development and environmental educations by adding social and economic perspectives to environmental education and environmental concerns to development education. Perhaps more importantly it brings environment and development educators closer together under a new, all-inclusive school of thought. Advocates of ESD suggest that environment and development organisations share common concerns with regard to the sustainability of the planet and its people and should therefore make strong partners.
But, as the discussions on the UNECE Strategy and the text adopted in the strategy itself make clear, there are those within the ESD movement who see it primarily as an outgrowth, and a refocusing, of EE. One consequence of this is that some who call themselves practitioners of ESD still focus largely on environmental themes of climate change, pollution and resource use. These divisions are given greater meaning as each draws from a different constituency, coordinated by a different group, relating to a different government department and seeking funding from different sources.
These similarities can be readily seen in a comparison of nationally and internationally accepted definitions of and strategies for DE and ESD. The primary emphasis of DE is global poverty and related issues of underdevelopment, human rights, food and water security, health, trade, peace, education and gender.
Why education is the key to development
DE promotes an awareness of the causes of poverty and underdevelopment, an understanding of rights and responsibilities, and an appreciation of opportunities to effect change for a more just and equal world Irish Aid, b: ESD explores the same issues that DE seeks to bring to the fore, including poverty alleviation, citizenship, peace ethics, responsibility in local and global contexts, democracy and governance, justice, security, human rights, health, gender equity, cultural diversity, rural and urban development, economy, production and consumption patterns and corporate responsibility UNECE, For both countries and individuals, there is a direct and indisputable link between access to quality education and economic and social development.
Likewise, ensuring that girls are not kept at home when they reach puberty, but are allowed to complete education on the same footing as their male counterparts, is not just altruism; it is sound economics.
Communities and countries that succeed in achieving gender parity in education will reap substantial benefits relating to health, equality, and job creation.
All countries, regardless of their national wealth, stand to gain from more and better education. Learners of all ages need to become familiar with new technologies and cope with rapidly changing workplaces. According to the International Labour Organization, an additional million jobs will be needed by Robust education systems — underpinned by qualified, professionally trained, motivated, and well-supported teachers — will be the cornerstone of this effort.
Governments should work with parent and teacher associations, as well as the private sector and civil-society organizations, to find the best and most constructive ways to improve the quality of education. Innovation has to be harnessed, and new partnerships must be forged.
Of course, this will cost money. But we have the resources necessary to deliver. What is lacking is the political will to make the needed investments. For the first time in history, we are in the unique position to provide education opportunities for all, if only we pull together.
We cannot miss this critical opportunity. To be sure, the responsibility for providing citizens with a quality education rests, first and foremost, with national governments.
Aid cannot replace domestic-resource mobilization. But donor countries also have an important role to play, especially in supporting least-developed countries. We must reverse the recent downward trend in development assistance for education, and leverage our assistance to attract investments from various other sources.
Together, we need to intensify efforts to bring the poorest and hardest to reach children into the education system. Education is a right for everyone. It is a right for girls, just as it is for boys.
It is a right for disabled children, just as it is for everyone else. It is a right for the 37 million out-of-school children and youth in countries affected by crises and conflicts. Education is a right regardless of where you are born and where you grow up.