Blood plasma - Wikipedia
What's the difference between Blood and Plasma? Plasma is the yellow liquid component of blood and constitutes 55% of the Edit this comparison chart. Transfusion with ABO incompatible blood can lead to severe and potentially fatal it is preferable for patients to receive blood and plasma of the same ABO and. Information regarding blood types including charts outlining donor Some people with rare blood types bank their own blood in advance of surgical procedures.
Drew insisted that there was no racial difference in human blood and that the policy would lead to needless deaths as soldiers and sailors were required to wait for "same race" blood. Most of the surplus plasma was returned to the United States for civilian use.What is the Function of Blood in Circulatory System? Blood Components Animation Video Plasma & Cells
Serum albumin replaced dried plasma for combat use during the Korean War. When donating whole blood or packed red blood cell PRBC transfusions, O- is the most desirable and is considered a "universal donor," since it has neither A nor B antigens and can be safely transfused to most recipients. However, for plasma the situation is somewhat reversed. Blood donation centers will sometimes collect only plasma from AB donors through apheresisas their plasma does not contain the antibodies that may cross react with recipient antigens.
As such, AB is often considered the "universal donor" for plasma. Special programs exist just to cater to the male AB plasma donor, because of concerns about transfusion related acute lung injury TRALI and female donors who may have higher leukocyte antibodies. Init purchased Life Resources Incorporated to be able to secure plasma supply from the United States.
It owned Bio Products Laboratory. High or low concentrations of glucose in the plasma or serum help to confirm serious disorders such as diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. Substances secreted into the plasma by cancers may indicate an occult malignancy; for instance, an increased concentration of prostate-specific antigen PSA in a middle-aged asymptomatic man may indicate undiagnosed prostate cancer.
Serum albuminanother protein synthesized by the liver, constitutes approximately 60 percent of all of the plasma proteins. It is very important in maintaining osmotic pressure in the blood vessels; it is also an important carrier protein for a number of substances, including hormones.
Other proteins called alpha and beta globulins transport lipids such as cholesterol as well as steroid hormonessugarand iron.
Blood and the cells it contains - Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens - NCBI Bookshelf
The gamma globulins, or immunoglobulins, are an important class of proteins that are secreted by B lymphocytes of the immune system.
Cytokines are proteins synthesized by cells of various organs and by cells found in the immune system and bone marrow in order to maintain normal blood cell formation hematopoiesis and regulate inflammation. For example, one cytokine called erythropoietin, synthesized by specialized kidney cells, stimulates bone marrow blood progenitor cells to produce red blood cells.
Other cytokines stimulate the production of white blood cells and platelets. Another protein system in the plasma, called complementis important in mediating appropriate immune and inflammatory responses to a variety of infectious agents.
Plasma is mainly water, but it also contains many important substances such as proteins albumin, clotting factors, antibodies, enzymes, and hormonessugars glucoseand fat particles.
All of the cells found in the blood come from bone marrow. In turn, there are three types of WBC—lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes—and three main types of granulocytes neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. See them in action in " Meet the blood cells". Meet the blood cells.
The force of the spinning causes denser elements to sink, and further processing enables the isolation of a particular protein or the isolation of a particular type of blood cell.
With the use of this method, antibodies and clotting factors can be harvested from the plasma to treat immune deficiencies and bleeding disorders, respectively.
Likewise, RBCs can be harvested for blood transfusion. Red blood cells transport oxygen Every second, million RBCs are produced in the bone marrow and released into the circulation. Also known as erythrocytes, RBCs are the most common type of cell found in the blood, with each cubic millimeter of blood containing million cells.
Blood Groups and Compatibilities
They circulate around the body for up to days, at which point the old or damaged RBCs are removed from the circulation by specialized cells macrophages in the spleen and liver.
In humans, as in all mammals, the mature RBC lacks a nucleus. This allows the cell more room to store hemoglobin, the oxygen-binding protein, enabling the RBC to transport more oxygen. RBCs are also biconcave in shape; this shape increases their surface area for the diffusion of oxygen across their surfaces.
In non-mammalian vertebrates such as birds and fish, mature RBCs do have a nucleus. See an electron micrograph of red blood cells in Albert's Molecular Biology of the Cell If a patient has a low level of hemoglobin, a condition called anemia, they may appear pale because hemoglobin gives RBCs, and hence blood, their red color.
They may also tire easily and feel short of breath because of the essential role of hemoglobin in transporting oxygen from the lungs to wherever it is needed around the body. White blood cells are part of the immune response WBCs come in many different shapes and sizes.
Blood Type Chart: Facts and Information on Blood Group Types - Disabled World
Some cells have nuclei with multiple lobes, whereas others contain one large, round nucleus. Some contain packets of granules in their cytoplasm and so are known as granulocytes. See an electron micrograph of white blood cells in Albert's Molecular Biology of the Cell Despite their differences in appearance, all of the various types of WBCs have a role in the immune response.
They circulate in the blood until they receive a signal that a part of the body is damaged. Signals include interleukin 1 IL-1a molecule secreted by macrophages that contributes to the fever of infections, and histamine, which is released by circulating basophils and tissue mast cells, and contributes to allergic reactions.