Japanese art - Wikipedia
In these archives, you will find a collection of Japanese Folk Art that we have sold over the past years. The information associated with each piece has been. The history of Asian art or Eastern art, includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions. Developments in Asian art historically parallel those in Western art, in general a few centuries earlier. Chinese art, Indian art, Korean art, Japanese art, each had significant .. Because of Korea's position between China and Japan, Korea was seen as. this is japanese art. here is what a Chinese scholar (studied in japan) Yu Peng, thought about the difference and similarities between japanese and chinese art.
Practically, Zen is based on the reality of calmness, peace, serenity and blank space. The principles of Heaven, Man and Earth are universal. But they play a tremendous part in the Japanese mores and folk-aesthetics. It is to be pitied that some people have taken seriously The Lotus and the Robot by Arthur Koestler who missed the whole tenor and trend of these arts.
Probably all religions teach that the universe arose from universal stillness. The stillness is real, broken occasionally by activity. The present theories or discoveries in Physics are coming very close to this and were predicted to me by a Chinese Buddhist in Hong Kong and fulfilled within a year by the awarding of Noble prizes in Physics to Chinese.
The Tea ceremony is based on harmonious activity within this universal calmness.
History of Asian art
The Sand Garden illustrates harmonious manifestation also. The Tea ceremony however is dynamic while the Sand Garden, with rocks, is static. The influence of these is so great that they have penetrated all Japanese sects and folk arts. The next contribution of Zen is that of the encouragement it has given to folk-arts themselves. Every Zen monastery is an individual effort and along with all the elements of metaphysics, ritual and discipline is the down-to-earth fact that in the Zen monastery laundry work, building maintenance, wood carving, etc.
Daisetz Suzuki was downgraded to me by the top spiritual teachers of both the Soto and Rinzai sects. And the lectures and books written about Zen by people who have never undergone the training or discipline overlook entirely the discrete training in interior decorating, woodcraft, metal craft, often carried on privately or secretly within the temple compounds.
My own observations have been that most of these came through China, but were not necessarily of China. Japan has received the last elements of Greco-Gandharva, and Scythian-Mongolian arts. The belief was that manifestation came suddenly out of the unseen.
Meditation was necessary and out of the unseen potential came the kinetic. This was exemplified by outline drawings and sudden brush strokes. Sometimes an artist would take a long time before doing anything and then work with great spontaneity. The fewer the strokes, the better both the technique and the composition itself.
We now have it at the Rudolph Schaeffer School taught by Mr. Gaskin and sometimes there have been whole projects based on this method or approach. Many of the great compositions of both China and Japan belong to this school. It was later on also adapted to porcelain in painting, silk screens and other art-forms. The final great contribution of China came with the downfall of the Ming Dynasty in China early in the 17th century.
Their chief temple is on the plain not too far, but slightly north of Kyoto and Kobe. The architecture is distinctly Chinese. Instead of the rectilinear Tori-gates, there is a great circle in the wall, as the entrance.
Trees are left and the ground is kept clear. The Japanese prefer shrubs or even herbaceous weeds. Whereas at Koyasan there were walks and ceilings all decorated, the Chinese building is full of windows, even on the ceiling.
The Shingon Buddhists have light-shining-in-the-darkness in their ceremonies; the Obaku Zen School has its universe-of-light reflected in its architecture. Whereas most Japanese temples have paintings all over, the Obaku school prides itself on its huge vases, displayed both as art objects and also to hold flowers. Long-stemmed Chrysanthemums are used when in season. Although Zen sects tend toward simplicity, the Obaku School uses mats and cushions and sometimes these are decorated.
But all Buddhist schools tend to preserve the Chinese costumery of the period and most of them depart far from the Yellow Robe of Southern Buddhism or even the modified robes of the Thibetans.
Colors therefore appear in Japan: Natural, from the flower blooms themselves. Naturalistic, in paintings particularly on walls, screen, and silk hangings. Chemical—mostly metal derivatives used in ceramics and tiles. Dyes—used in costumery, silk backgrounds, etc. The Hindus themselves do not seem to have developed a color sense.
The Chinese, following the basic Chinese tradition of five elements, tended to depict sharp contrast colors. But the Japanese, who seem to be particularly sensitive, toned down the Chinese colors and introduced all sorts of minor tones, or tertiary colors unheard of in either China or India.
All the Chinese components from the pre-historical times to the Ming are preserved in Japan and much better than anywhere else. But my own conclusion is that looking at pictures or traveling in the country is much better than writing explanations.
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Chinese Influence on Japanese Art
Only a few fragments of the original statue survive, and the present hall and central Buddha are reconstructions from the Edo period. Clustered around the Daibutsuden on a gently sloping hillside are a number of secondary halls: This last structure is of great importance as an art-historical cache, because in it are stored the utensils that were used in the temple's dedication ceremony inthe eye-opening ritual for the Rushana image, as well as government documents and many secular objects owned by the Imperial family.
The term Heian period refers to the years between andwhen the Kamakura shogunate was established at the end of the Genpei War. The period is further divided into the early Heian and the late Heian, or Fujiwara erathe pivotal date beingthe year imperial embassies to China were officially discontinued. At the core of Shingon worship are mandalasdiagrams of the spiritual universe, which then began to influence temple design.
Japanese Buddhist architecture also adopted the stupaoriginally an Indian architectural formin its Chinese-style pagoda. The temples erected for this new sect were built in the mountains, far away from the Court and the laity in the capital. The irregular topography of these sites forced Japanese architects to rethink the problems of temple construction, and in so doing to choose more indigenous elements of design. Cypress-bark roofs replaced those of ceramic tile, wood planks were used instead of earthen floors, and a separate worship area for the laity was added in front of the main sanctuary.
In the Fujiwara periodPure Land Buddhismwhich offered easy salvation through belief in Amida the Buddha of the Western Paradisebecame popular. This period is named after the Fujiwara familythen the most powerful in the country, who ruled as regents for the Emperor, becoming, in effect, civil dictators. Concurrently, the Kyoto nobility developed a society devoted to elegant aesthetic pursuits.
So secure and beautiful was their world that they could not conceive of Paradise as being much different. They created a new form of Buddha hall, the Amida hall, which blends the secular with the religious, and houses one or more Buddha images within a structure resembling the mansions of the nobility.
It consists of a main rectangular structure flanked by two L-shaped wing corridors and a tail corridor, set at the edge of a large artificial pond. Inside, a single golden image of Amida c.
Applied to the walls of the hall are small relief carvings of celestials, the host believed to have accompanied Amida when he descended from the Western Paradise to gather the souls of believers at the moment of death and transport them in lotus blossoms to Paradise.
Dating from aboutthe Genji Monogatari Emakia famous illustrated Tale of Genji represents the earliest surviving yamato-e handscroll, and one of the high points of Japanese painting. Written about the year by Murasaki Shikibua lady-in-waiting to the Empress Akikothe novel deals with the life and loves of Genji and the world of the Heian court after his death.
The 12th-century artists of the e-maki version devised a system of pictorial conventions that convey visually the emotional content of each scene. In the second half of the century, a different, livelier style of continuous narrative illustration became popular.
The Ban Dainagon Ekotoba late 12th centurya scroll that deals with an intrigue at court, emphasizes figures in active motion depicted in rapidly executed brush strokes and thin but vibrant colors.
E-maki also serve as some of the earliest and greatest examples of the otoko-e "men's pictures" and onna-e "women's pictures" styles of painting. There are many fine differences in the two styles, appealing to the aesthetic preferences of the genders. But perhaps most easily noticeable are the differences in subject matter.
Onna-e, epitomized by the Tale of Genji handscroll, typically deals with court life, particularly the court ladies, and with romantic themes.
What is similarities between Chinese and Japanese art
Otoko-e often recorded historical events, particularly battles. With the shift of power from the nobility to the warrior class, the arts had to satisfy a new audience: Thus, realism, a popularizing trend, and a classical revival characterize the art of the Kamakura period. In the Kamakura period, Kyoto and Nara remained the centres of artistic production and high culture.
The Kei school of sculptors, particularly Unkeicreated a new, more realistic style of sculpture. The Kegon Engi Emakithe illustrated history of the founding of the Kegon sect, is an excellent example of the popularizing trend in Kamakura painting. The Kegon sect, one of the most important in the Nara period, fell on hard times during the ascendancy of the Pure Land sects.
Compare and contrast chinese and japanese art Essay
The wives of samurai had been discouraged from learning more than a syllabary system for transcribing sounds and ideas see kanaand most were incapable of reading texts that employed Chinese ideographs kanji. Thus, the Kegon Engi Emaki combines passages of text, written with a maximum of easily readable syllables, and illustrations that have the dialogue between characters written next to the speakers, a technique comparable to contemporary comic strips.
The plot of the e-maki, the lives of the two Korean priests who founded the Kegon sect, is swiftly paced and filled with fantastic feats such as a journey to the palace of the Ocean King, and a poignant mom story. E-maki versions of her novel continued to be produced, but the nobility, attuned to the new interest in realism yet nostalgic for past days of wealth and power, revived and illustrated the diary in order to recapture the splendor of the author's times.
One of the most beautiful passages illustrates the episode in which Murasaki Shikibu is playfully held prisoner in her room by two young courtiers, while, just outside, moonlight gleams on the mossy banks of a rivulet in the imperial garden. Higashiyama period During the Muromachi period —also called the Ashikaga period, a profound change took place in Japanese culture.
The Ashikaga clan took control of the shogunate and moved its headquarters back to Kyoto, to the Muromachi district of the city. With the return of government to the capital, the popularizing trends of the Kamakura period came to an end, and cultural expression took on a more aristocratic, elitist character. Zen Buddhism, the Ch'an sect traditionally thought to have been founded in China in the 6th century, was introduced for a second time into Japan and took root. Because of secular ventures and trading missions to China organized by Zen temples, many Chinese paintings and objects of art were imported into Japan and profoundly influenced Japanese artists working for Zen temples and the shogunate.
Not only did these imports change the subject matter of painting, but they also modified the use of color; the bright colors of Yamato-e yielded to the monochromes of painting in the Chinese manner, where paintings generally only have black and white or different tones of a single color. Typical of early Muromachi painting is the depiction by the priest-painter Kao active early 15th century of the legendary monk Kensu Hsien-tzu in Chinese at the moment he achieved enlightenment.
This type of painting was executed with quick brush strokes and a minimum of detail. Executed originally for a low-standing screen, it has been remounted as a hanging scroll with inscriptions by contemporary figures above, one of which refers to the painting as being in the "new style".
In the foreground a man is depicted on the bank of a stream holding a small gourd and looking at a large slithery catfish. Mist fills the middle ground, and the background mountains appear to be far in the distance. It is generally assumed that the "new style" of the painting, executed aboutrefers to a more Chinese sense of deep space within the picture plane. Landscape of the Four Seasons Sansui Chokan; c. Oda, a minor chieftain, acquired power sufficient to take de facto control of the government in and, five years later, to oust the last Ashikaga shogun.
Hideyoshi took command after Oda's death, but his plans to establish hereditary rule were foiled by Ieyasu, who established the Tokugawa shogunate in A massive ume tree and twin pines are depicted on pairs of sliding screens in diagonally opposite corners, their trunks repeating the verticals of the corner posts and their branches extending to left and right, unifying the adjoining panels. Eitoku's screen, Chinese Lions, also in Kyoto, reveals the bold, brightly colored style of painting preferred by the samurai.
Art of the Edo period[ edit ] The print Red Fuji from Hokusai 's series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji The Tokugawa shogunate gained undisputed control of the government in with a commitment to bring peace and economic and political stability to the country; in large measure it was successful.
The shogunate survived untilwhen it was forced to capitulate because of its failure to deal with pressure from Western nations to open the country to foreign trade. One of the dominant themes in the Edo period was the repressive policies of the shogunate and the attempts of artists to escape these strictures. The foremost of these was the closing of the country to foreigners and the accoutrements of their cultures, and the imposition of strict codes of behavior affecting every aspect of life, the clothes one wore, the person one married, and the activities one could or should not pursue.
In the early years of the Edo periodhowever, the full impact of Tokugawa policies had not yet been felt, and some of Japan's finest expressions in architecture and painting were produced: Katsura Detached Palacebuilt in imitation of Genji 's palace, contains a cluster of shoin buildings that combine elements of classic Japanese architecture with innovative restatements.
The whole complex is surrounded by a beautiful garden with paths for walking. Three Beauties of the Present Dayby Utamaroc. Perhaps his finest are the screen paintings of Red and White Plum Blossoms. The school of art best known in the West is that of the ukiyo-e paintings and woodblock prints of the demimonde, the world of the kabuki theater and the pleasure districts.
Ukiyo-e prints began to be produced in the late 17th century; in Harunobu produced the first polychrome print. Print designers of the next generation, including Torii Kiyonaga and Utamarocreated elegant and sometimes insightful depictions of courtesans.