Performing Arts (Dance, Drama, Music) | Central Foundation Girls' School
So what is the true relationship of theatre and performance to human society? . whatever means you can; with words, theatre, dance, music and so on. . theatre is a relationship between the production and the audience-. All human cultures dance to music and music's kinetic faculty is exploited in in music can be understood across cultures, despite dramatic cultural differences (9 ). whether the connection between music and movement is universal. These parameters were selected to accommodate the production of. Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices, bodies or inanimate objects to Theatre, music, dance and object manipulation, and other kinds of In dance, the connection between the two concepts is stronger than in some . of the Pear Garden to produce a form of drama that was primarily musical.
Space, time, and the force of gravity may be made apparent to the spectator through the trajectories that the dancers make in space, through the configurations that they form on the dance floor, through the duration of the dance phrases, and through the alternating sensations of weight and weightlessness created by falls and jumps.
In a similar way, too, the audience may experience a special focusing of attention, a draining of the usual habits of perception through the kinesthetic, visual, and aural power of the movement and music. Many extant tribal dances can be categorized as either imitative or formal, as can the European folk dances that developed out of earlier tribal dance forms.
Courtship dances, the descendants of ancient courtship and fertility dances, still retain overt imitations of flirtatiousness. Other dances have similarly retained their early formal character, even, in some cases, retaining the symbolic significance of their patterns.
In Ukrainian dances descended from pagan Moon-worshiping ritual, the circling of the dancers represents the way the Moon influences the work in the fields, and the final pivot represents the flourishing of the corn. In Armenian carpet-weaving dances, the complex floor patterns mimic the action of the work process. Drama in Western theatre dance When dance developed into a form of spectacle, particularly of a secular kind, it was frequently allied to the telling of a story and the depiction of characters.
There the mime was often naturalistic: During the later, cosmopolitan period of the Roman Empire, dance and mime were popular entertainment for audiences drawn from a variety of linguistic backgrounds.Maria and the Captain dance the Laendler from The Sound of Music
The early European court ballets were also oriented toward dramatic spectacle, though the dance movement itself was not highly expressive and mimed gesture was limited. Other dramatic elements, usually visual effects or speech, communicated the essential points of the story.
One of the first choreographers to extend dance movement so that it could be dramatically expressive was the English dancer and ballet master John Weaverwho in his ballet The Loves of Mars and Venus experimented with giving the characters gestures to express their individual personalities. Later in the 18th century Jean-Georges Noverre reacted against the purely decorative form into which ballet had developed. By the end of the century, however, choreography was once again seldom concerned with plot and character, and long sections of mime often incomprehensible even to the dancers were used to tell whatever story there was in the dance.
The reforms proposed by Fokine at the beginning of the 20th century, like those of Noverre two centuries before, demanded more naturally expressive mime and dance movement that illuminated theme and character and were an essential component of the dance. This naturalism still characterizes ballet; the expressive qualities of dance movement and simple, dramatic gestures almost entirely displace conventional mime, and even in revivals of the 19th-century classics, traditional mime is usually kept to a minimum so that audiences have no trouble following it.
The founders of modern dance, Isadora DuncanMary WigmanMartha Grahamand Doris Humphreyalso reacted against the lack of expression in ballet. Like Fokine, they believed that most ballet dancing was mere decorative acrobatics, but while Fokine was happy to continue using exotic or archaic themes for his new, naturalistic ballets, these later choreographers believed that dance should address subjects of greater relevance and profundity.
The kinds of movement with which the modern dance choreographers expressed these themes had little of conventional ballet technique about them.
Eschewing mime, particularly that associated with ballet, as well as the traditional ballet vocabulary, they sought to make the whole body dramatically expressive.
See below Theatre dance: Culver Pictures Throughout the 20th century, ballet, like modern dance, moved toward a concern with more serious issues. Antony Tudor as the Friend in Pillar of Fire, At times dance was accompanied by mime, acting, and singing as well as a multitude of visual effects.
Pushing the limits of what dance is, and what it can be, was a subject of enquiry throughout the period. Dance communicates through the dancer in action, so its meanings and significance are mediated by prevailing attitudes to physical behaviour and attitudes towards the body, gender, race and nation.
Traditionally, ballet reflected the behaviours from which it originated in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, with an emphasis on male gallantry. The social and political changes under way at the opening of the twentieth century allowed for and encouraged different types of dance.
However, the changes initiated in the last years of the nineteenth century, especially those by women dancers, found their fullest realization in a new type of theatrical dance, modern dance. Modern dance, as a new form, developed almost simultaneously in Europe and the United States. Its main growth period was the first three decades of the twentieth century. Many of the earliest pioneers of modern dance found inspiration in other cultures, traditions, arts and forms. They found many ways of responding to the challenges of the modern world and especially the modern industrial city.
In doing so they created a form that encompassed a diversity of points of view and approaches, a reaction against the conformity of tradition. Influences from this latter movement can be seen in many early modern dance works of the s and s.
His signature work The Green Table is the definitive statement of dance of the time — a powerfully crafted anti-war dance-drama that received international acclaim and exemplified the theatrical heights that the new modern dance had reached in Europe.
Mary Wigman gave voice to the individual European woman, her dances reflecting the changes in how women saw themselves and were seen through three decades from toin dances such as Witch Dance The debacle of modern dance in Germany under Nazism, where some equivocated, some collaborated and many left, led to its demise.
During the s he, and his early British books, had a marked influence on approaches to movement on the stage on e. America developed its own distinctive modern dance tradition, and this continued despite radical changes to dance in the latter half of the century.
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Doris Humphrey —Charles Weidman — 75Martha Graham and Hanya Holm are often credited as the four pioneers of the American modern dance. Modern dance in America has stressed the theatricality of the group, as opposed to the individual.
Many American modern dance companies typically show work by the founder choreographer only. It was this form that had a marked influence on British theatrical dance in the s, leading to the establishment of London Contemporary Dance Theatre under Robert Cohan b. Although the history of ballet and that of modern or contemporary dance are generally treated separately, the development of the two forms shows many similarities.
America was also home to the development of other distinctive dance forms that have had an international impact. African American dance forms had been developed in the s as modern dance by Americans such as Katherine Dunham, theatricalizing Caribbean dance in particular. Other dances were adapted by black Americans into jazz dance forms in the s.
Many were taken and introduced into film and theatre, especially in the musical. Such choreographers as Jerome Robbins, Agnes de Mille and Hanya Holm introduced elements of jazz dance into their ballets, and there has subsequently been much cross-fertilization between jazz dance, ballet and modern dance.
Asian dance forms have found theatrical expression in the United States and Europe. Early exemplars of the forms, such as Uday Shankar and Ram Gopal, have been followed by many others, especially since the s. They appear in their own right and as expressed through Western forms. Arguably the single most influential dancer of the twentieth century is Merce Cunningham. His work spans the distance from the early modern dance of the s to the digital dancing of the twenty-first century.
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If any one dancer typifies the monumental changes in the theatricality of dance in the latter half of the twentieth century, it is he.
He brought all such considerations together in works such as Biped The experimentation with the nature of dance and the redefining of its theatricality in postmodern terms happened in the s and s, primarily in the United States.
Here and in the other Judson works the clearly drawn technical and theatrical lines of early modern dance are deconstructed. The postmodern dance of this generation and those, like Bill T. Jones and Mark Morris b. Theatrical limits were breached by drawing on artistic, filmic and other frames of reference.
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The blurring of boundaries led to collaborative approaches to making work that go way beyond the ideas of collaboration initiated by Diaghilev and questioned by Cunningham.
It was not until the s that German dance fully recovered from Nazism and the war to which it led. Ballet in Germany underwent a much-needed revival in the s, especially through the work of John Cranko —73 and the highly acclaimed Stuttgart Ballet, which put the country back on the international map.