Relationship between disease and poverty

relationship between disease and poverty

RelaTIonShIp beTWeen InfecTIouS dISeaSeS and poveRTy infectious diseases. Risks are a proxy for poverty and disadvantage (7) risk factors are shaped by. Diseases of poverty and the 10/90 Gap. Written by Philip and its relation to the diseases of poverty. of the 1, total new drugs approved between The relationship between poverty and diseases is emphatically intertwined however we paint with too broad a brush when we generalise that infection rates go.

It also has a burgeoning corpus of modern biomedical knowledge in active conversation with the rest of the world. The means that the developed have could combine with the recipes to make them meaningful that the developing have.

That is the challenge ahead for mankind as it gropes its way out of poverty, disease, despair, alienation, anomie, and the ubiquitous all-devouring lifestyle stresses, and takes halting steps towards well-being and the glory of human development. While individual diseases have to be tackled, patient welfare safeguarded, and scientific progress forwarded, it also has to address the social forces that impinge on, regulate, modify, and at times derail many an earnest effort at disease control.

Diseases of Poverty and Lifestyle, Well-Being and Human Development

Socioeconomic and political factors, along with public awareness, are three crucial areas that cannot be neglected if the fight against disease and for positive health, well-being, and human development has to succeed. The main culprits here are poverty in the have-nots and lifestyle stresses in the haves, and both are interlinked with callousness in those who have the power to change things.

The problems of the haves differ substantially from those of the have-nots. Their concerns are different, as are their diseases. The social issues, interpersonal problems, and cultural ethos in the two groups are markedly different.

Yet, at a very fundamental level, their problems remain the same—both fight against distress, disability, and premature death; they struggle against human exploitation and for human development and self-actualisation; and they struggle against callousness to critical concerns in regimes and scientific power centres. The haves are not any better off than the have-nots on these parameters, although they may appear to be so.

It is only that the issues of disease, well-being, development, and the fight against callousness adopt different forms in these two groups.

We will see later how this is true. Also worth noting is the fact that the number of people falling sick has not reduced. While individual disease treatment is progressing, so also is human pathology; sicknesses are not reducing in number; they are only changing in type Singh and Singh, Health awareness has increased.

So has average life expectancy.

relationship between disease and poverty

Medical science boasts of a vast array of treatment modalities for an equally vast array of diseases. Distress has been ameliorated, disability curtailed, death postponed. And yet, if the booming medical practice and pharma industry are any indication, the patient population has not reduced. In fact, it has multiplied. Not all of this is because of increased health awareness. While individual distress may have been reduced, individual disability curtailed, and individual death postponed due to better treatment facilities, the number of distressed have not reduced.

Neither have the number of disabled, nor that of the dead. What does this signify? It signifies, if nothing else, that while individual disease treatment is progressing, so also is human pathology. Newer and more ingenious ways of falling ill are seeing the light of day, and the body is finding newer ways of getting out of order. Sicknesses are not reducing in number.

They are changing in type. If infectious diseases and malnutrition took their toll in the earlier centuries and in certain sections of the world even todaylifestyle diseases, chronic conditions, and neoplastic disorders are taking their toll in the present. It is almost like changing fashions in the world of disease Singh and Singh, Hence, it indeed is an unrelenting struggle to keep disease at bay and ensure human development and well-being.

In all such struggles, both in the haves and the have-nots, people from all strata of society-high, middle, or low-and in different types of societies-Asian, European, African, American, or Australian-are perennially involved. Those who consider themselves immune to such considerations only cloak their ignorance in false bravado.

Diseases of Poverty and Lifestyle, Well-Being and Human Development

Let us see first the problems of the have-nots, then of the haves, and then of societies and people in transition. We could then analyse the essential factors that impact all three, their commonalities and differences, and what could be the action plan to meet them head-on. Its impact is greatest among the poor, who have no economic cushion and the weakest social support of any group; it is the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa and the world's fourth biggest killer ibid.

Add measles, pneumonia, and diarrhoeal disease, and you have the whole panorama of the diseases of poverty-six in all, according to the WHO. These, along with complications of childbirth, kill 14 million people a year Results, These are individuals and societies which have neither the economic resources nor the technical expertise or manpower to handle the epidemic proportions that these, and related, diseases and disabilities assume in such vulnerable groups.

This is in spite of the fact that all these six diseases of poverty can be prevented or treated for a small amount of money.

For instance, medicines to treat acute malaria cost just pennies, and a measles vaccine costs just 26 cents Results, Poverty and disease are involved in a vicious downward spiral, each aiding and abetting the other.

Poverty is an inveterate consequence and cause of ill health Klugamn, Diseases of poverty increase poverty, and poverty, in turn, increases the chances of developing the diseases of poverty. Often the hapless patient, and his eager but resourceless caregiver, is sucked into this vortex with no redemption in sight-and it does not take very long for an eager-resourceless caregiver to become an indolent-resourceless one. The interplay of these diseases of poverty is substantial and can hardly be overlooked.

TB and HIV are synergistic infections: We also know how malnutrition compounds TB. Infectious, communicable and deficiency diseases, which are aplenty in such populaces, further add to the agony. RTIs, Hansen's disease, perinatal deaths, kwashiorkor, marasmus, anaemia, vitamin deficiencies, iodine deficiency goitres, etc.

The social dimension of poverty can hardly be discounted. Alcoholism, drug abuse, chronic mental disorders, sociopathy, beggary, violence in family and neighbourhoods, child labour, physical abuse and neglect of the female especially the female childcommercial sex-all these, while they may impact any strata of society, leave their greatest trail of devastation among the impoverished.

A greatly reduced self-esteem, with a feeling of being trapped in a helpless situation, with no succour in sight, adds to the crippling effect of poverty-disease-deprivation on human existence.

Poverty is not just income deprivation but capability deprivation as well Sen, ; p There is a distinction between lack of income and lack of capacity Sen, Poor people acutely feel their powerlessness and insecurity, their vulnerability and lack of dignity. You may not have heard of diseases such as leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths and trachoma, but they can cause severe pain and life-long disabilities — and mean enormous productivity losses.

However, efforts to tackle them have usually taken a back seat to the bigger killers. Which are the most deadly non-communicable illnesses worldwide?

  • Key Facts: Poverty and Poor Health
  • Diseases and the Links to Poverty

The biggest non-communicable killers are maternal and newborn deaths and deaths related to poor nutrition, cardiovascular disease and non-communicable respiratory diseases. How do disease and infection affect economic growth? Lives lost mean reduced economic productivity as well as personal tragedy.

Productivity is further slowed while people are ill or caring for others. Most of these were among young people and adults in their most productive years. In heavily affected countries billions of dollars of economic activity are lost each year as a result of illness and death from HIV, TB and malaria.

relationship between disease and poverty

This can seriously reduce economic growth in countries that are already struggling. Malaria reduces economic growth by 1. How has the global community responded? World leaders and international organisations have slowly woken up to the impact of the most prevalent infectious diseases. Running parallel to statistics about global poverty are statistics about infectious diseases.

The relationship between poverty and diseases is emphatically intertwined however we paint with too broad a brush when we generalise that infection rates go down as poverty declines.

This trend is not a given and spikes in infection rates do occur when disastrous events take place such as natural disasters or the outbreak of conflict. The Chicken and the Egg A common train of thought is that poverty is a driving force behind poor health and disease.

While certainly not disputable, that fact reflects only one side of the argument and does not take into account the nuanced links between poverty and health. The fact of the matter is that the relationship between poverty and health is inextricably linked, presenting a chicken-an-egg situation where one seemingly exists, in part, because of the other.

Diseases and the Links to Poverty | Health |

Social, economic and biological factors interact to drive a vicious cycle of poverty and disease from which, for many people, there is no escape. In turn, infectious diseases exacerbate certain factors that contribute to poverty. In many parts of the world, healthcare is not free nor is it cheap, placing huge financial stress on families who may already live under the poverty line.

One study released in late highlights the interdependent nature of poverty and disease, analysing the negative impact of infectious and parasitic diseases on economic development. The study also adds a third factor into this argument, taking into account the role that biodiversity plays in this area by noting that a lack of proper maintenance of natural flora and fauna led to an increase in cases of infectious diseases.