Eb/No and Data Rate
The key point is that Eb is received energy per bit, and No is noise power in 1 Hz of spectrum. So, to derive SNR(dB) = Eb / No (dB) + 10 * logbase10(bit rate / bandwidth). See how What is the relationship between rate, SINR and BER?. relationship among BER, SNR and EVM extended from  and . This can be done without M-ary modulation system, Eb is the energy per bit and N0/2 is. Let's start by fixing a symbol rate R s symbols per second. To modulate R s symbols per second without ISI, Nyquist says that we need a bandwidth at least B W.
Antenna gain is 2. Receive sensitivity The selection criteria for radio equipment include performance, price, configuration etc, but considered from the point of view of performance alone, communication range is obviously an important parameter.
The first thing that customers say is that they want long range. At the maximum communication distance, the electric field intensity is fairly low, and the electric field intensity varies significantly due to external factors, resulting in bit errors.
In the relationship between receiver sensitivity and communication range, naturally the higher the receiver sensitivity, the longer the communication range. Incidentally, the oft-mentioned receiver sensitivity is the minimum power value for obtaining the stipulated receiver performance bit error rateand it differs according to the conditions of measurement. This is expressed in terms of the dBm when the error rate is a certain percentage. If it is stipulated by the bit error rate, it may also be stipulated by the packet error rate.
With digital modulation, the data is sent in packets, so the criterion for receiver sensitivity is the number of packets that actually reach the receiver.
Eb/No and Data Rate
Receiver sensitivity is a value measured by the manufacturer using a measuring device. Note that it is not a value that is necessarily valid in the environment of use. Receiver sensitivity is the input power value when random code PN code is sent and the stipulated error rate is obtained. Therefore when comparing performance using the value for receiver sensitivity alone, it is necessary to proceed cautiously.
Relation between SNR and Eb/No
What are bit errors? However, there is noise in the data which affects the decoding operation. This is shown in the figure below. The source of this noise is the sum of the signal noise at the input of the receiver and the internal thermal noise inside the receiver. The signal inside of the receiver is amplified and input to the demodulation unit.
The bit decoder data decoding samples the centre of the bit data period by voltage detection, comparing the thresholds to determine high and low levels. Here, it is important to determine the value of the moment of the sampling point.
It may also be determined at the zero crossing. The decoded data contains noise, and this power is constant irrespective of the strength of the signal.
The performance of the carrier wave processor of the receiver differs depending on the device used, and so naturally the amount of noise is different too. The figure below shows how the bits are determined by the bit detector of the receiver. In 1the noise in the carrier wave processor is low, and the level at the sampling point does not cross the threshold. However, in 3 the noise power significantly crosses the threshold, and if it occurs at the sampling point, the determination will be wrong.
This is the entity known as a bit error. Even if noise is removed with a filter, noise in the frequency band causes this kind of thing. In other words, hardware detects everything and does not discriminate between signal and noise.
For this reason, in order to decode without errors, a large carrier-to-noise ratio between signal power C and noise power N is required. Since signal power is decided by the location of installation and receiver performance, it is necessary to reduce the noise power of the receiver in order to eliminate errors.
Noise has a Gaussian distribution A close look at 3 in the figure above shows that the cause of the bit errors is noise which exceeds the threshold at the sampling point, and the result of the determination is that the voltage value is simply reversed.
The probability of this noise level in this position has the normal distribution Gaussian distribution as shown in the figure below. In system design, probability theory is required for calculating the required received power with the required error rate. The types of noise that are related to receiver bit error rates include thermal noise, shot noise, flicker noise, natural noise, human noise and so on.
Relation between SNR and Eb/No – ADE
Thermal noise is noise that is generated by internal components at warm temperatures. Usually this shows up when discussing bit error rates or modulation methods.
You may have a vague feeling that it represents something important about a digital communication system, but can't really put a finger on what or why. Most engineers that I know say "E bee over en zero," though some of the more fastidious ones say "E sub bee over en sub zero". At any rate, even though "No" is usually written with an "Oh" instead of a zero, it is not pronounced as the word "no".
If this definition leaves you with a empty, glassy-eyed feeling, you're not alone. It is measured at the input to the receiver and is used as the basic measure of how strong the signal is.
These curves show the communications engineer the best performance that can be achieved across a digital link with a given amount of RF power. It will have a 30 dB fade margin and operate within a reasonable bit error rate BER at an outdoor distance of meters. Hold on to your hat here!
Remember that when we play with dB or any log-type operation, multiplication is replaced by adding the dBs, and division is replaced by subtracting the dBs.
Our strategy for determining the transmit power is to: