Developing synergies between formative and summative assessment
Summative and formative assessment are two ways to evaluate a There's also a big difference between the assessement strategies in getting. What is the difference between formative and summative assessment? The goal of formative assessment is to monitor student learning to provide ongoing. This chapter discusses the relationships between formative and summative assessments—both in the classroom and externally. In addition to teachers, site- and.
Devising a criterion-based scale to record progress and make summative judgments poses difficulties of its own.
- What is the difference between formative and summative assessment?
- The differences between formative and summative assessment - Infographic
The levels of specificity involved in subdividing a domain to assure that the separate elements together represent the whole is a crucial and demanding task Wiliam, This becomes an issue whether considering performance assessments or ongoing assessment data and needs to be articulated in advance of when students engage in activities Quellmalz, ; Gipps, Specific guidelines for the construction and selection of test items are not offered in this document. Test design and selection are certainly important aspects of a teacher's assessment responsibility and can be informed by the guidelines and discussions presented in this document see also Chapter 3.
Item-writing recommendations and other test specifications are topics of a substantial body of existing literature for practitioner-relevant discussions, see Airasian, ; Cangelosi, ; Cunningham, ; Doran, Chan, and Tamir, ; Gallagher, ; Gronlund, ; Stiggins, These concepts also are discussed in Chapter 3. Validity and reliability are judged using different criteria, although the two are related. It is important to consider the uses of assessment and the appropriateness of resulting inferences and actions as well Messick, Reliability has to do with generalizing across tasks is this a generalizable measure of student performance?
What these terms mean operationally varies slightly for the kinds of assessments that occur each day in the classroom and in the form of externally designed exams. The dynamic nature of day-to-day teaching affords teachers with opportunities to make numerous assessments, take relevant action, and to amend decisions and evaluations if necessary and with time. With a single-test score, especially from a test administered at the end of the school year, a teacher does not have the opportunity to follow a response with another question, either to determine if the previous question had been misinterpreted or to probe misunderstandings for diagnostic reasons.
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With a standardized test, where on-the-spot interpretation of the student's response by the teacher and follow-up action is impossible, the context in which responses are developed is ignored. Measures of validity are decontextualized, depending almost entirely on the collection and nature of the actual test items.
More important, all users of assessment data teachers, administrators and policy makers need to be aware of what claims they make about a student's understanding and the consequential action based on any one assessment.
Relying on a variety of assessments, in both form and what is being assessed, will go a long way to ensuring validity. Much of what is called for in the standards, such as inquiry, cannot be assessed in many of the multiplechoice, short-answer, or even two-hour performance assessments that are currently employed.
Reliability, though more straightforward, may be more difficult to ensure than validity.
Viable systems that command the same confidence as the current summative system but are free of many of the inherent conflicts and contradictions are necessary to make decisions psychometrically sound. The confidence that any assessment can demand will depend, in large part, on both reliability and validity Baron, ; Black, As Box indicates, there are some basic questions to be asked of both teacher-made and published assessments.
Teachers need to consider the technical aspect of the summative assessments they use in the classroom. They also should look for evidence that disproves earlier judgments and make necessary accommodations. Likewise, they should be looking for further assessment data that could help them to support their students ' learning. Does this assessment capture that? Have the students experienced this material as part of their curriculum?
What can I say about a student's understandings based on the information generated from the assessment? Are those claims legitimate?
Are the consequences and actions that result from this performance justifiable? Am I making assumptions or inferences about other knowledge, skills or abilities that this assessment did not directly assess?
The differences between formative and summative assessment - Infographic - BookWidgets
Formative assessments provide students with feedback and show where gaps in learning are. Shutterstock Formative assessment Formative assessment includes a range of strategies such as classroom discussions and quizzes designed to generate feedback on student performance. This is done so teachers can make changes in teaching and learning based on what students need. It involves finding out what students know and do not know, and continually monitoring student progress during learning.
Both teachers and students are involved in decisions about the next steps in learning.
Marking answers with a tick or cross won't enhance learning Teachers use the feedback from formative tasks to identify what students are struggling with and adjust instruction appropriately.
This could involve re-teaching key concepts, changing how they teach or modifying teaching resources to provide students with additional support. Students also use feedback from formative tasks to reflect on and improve their own work. Regular classroom tasks, whether formal for example, traditional pen and paper tests or informal such as classroom discussionscan be adapted into effective formative tasks by: A teacher might, for example, design a series of activities to guide students through an inquiry or research process in science providing regular opportunities for feedback from the teacher, other students or parents this feedback may be face-to face, written, or online making sure students have opportunities to reflect on and make use of feedback to improve their work.
This may involve asking students to write a short reflection about the feedback on their draft essay and using this to improve their final version. There are many advantages of formative assessment: Summative assessments are generally standardised and rarely provide feedback. Most commonly thought of as formal, time-specific exams, these assessments may include major essays, projects, presentations, art works, creative portfolios, reports or research experiments.