How is gender-based violence preventing HIV prevention? The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified four critical pathways linking Another direct link between gender-based violence and HIV is HIV diagnosis and. Gender-based Violence and HIV/AIDS: A Rwandan Project Confronts the Connection to confront GBV with non-government organizations, UN agencies, to HIV infection, partially due to early sexual activity, relationships. poverty-focused HIV initiative in South Africa. Addressing the links between poverty, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS through an.
Gender-Based Violence and HIV/AIDS in South Africa: A Literature Review
In a study on sexual violence and HIV in South Africa, 16 percent of males and 14 percent of females in the toyear-old age group would not share a positive diagnosis with their family. Several forms of male dominance, while supported in greater numbers by men, are also widely accepted by women.
For example, the South African HIV and sexual violence study observed that, among toyear-olds, 28 percent of males and 27 percent of females believed that a girl did not have the right to refuse sex with her boyfriend. In addition, the unequal power dimension is distorted further by large age differences in relationships. It is common for women in sub-Saharan Africa to marry at a young age or have older intimate partners who are sexually more experienced. A study in Zambia found that only 11 percent of married women believed they had the right to ask their husband to use a condom, even if they knew he was infected with HIV.
To prevent HIV we must end gender-based violence - International HIV/AIDS Alliance.
Less than 25 percent believed they had a right to refuse to have sex with him. Twenty-three percent agreed that a beating was justified if a wife refused to have sex with her husband.
- Gender-Based Violence Increases Risk of HIV/AIDS for Women in Sub-Saharan Africa
In groups, often based on gender and age, they talk about the issues they face and develop strategies for overcoming them. Then, the groups come together and present the kinds of changes they would like to see. The potential for long-term change rests in this intergenerational dialogue, which can uncover and challenge negative social norms.
Gender Equality And HIV/AIDS
Lessons From the Field, Spotlight on Genderaccessed at www. Neil Andersson et al.
However, its approach, especially to HIV prevention which promotes abstinence and being faithful over condoms, has been seriously questioned.
The semi-structured interview guides were refined in accordance with feedback and as information emerged throughout the data collection process. Potential key informants were identified through the document review process and through snowball sampling, in which key informants were asked to recommend other potential key informants working in this area. These individuals were consistent in the organizations they identified as the major organizations addressing the link; names were added until saturation was reached, resulting in 10 in total.
In July and August18 semi-structured interviews were conducted with three main categories of key informants: Key informants signed voluntary consent forms, in which they selected the degree of anonymity of their responses for incorporation into the results.
The majority of implementing agency and government key informants opted for anonymity to protect themselves from a perceived potential threat of retaliation from PEPFAR.
To prevent HIV we must end gender-based violence
Each key informant was assigned a number to maintain confidentiality. Interviews were recorded using detailed note-taking as key informants did not want to be tape-recorded. Interviews were typed onto a separate document by the interviewer following each interview.Addressing Gender-Based Violence and HIV/AIDS
Data analysis consisted of the separation of responses of different categories of key informants and the identification and coding of themes inherent in their responses. The analysis also encompassed comparison and triangulation of data from different sources, including policy documents, to account for bias and incomplete information. Where we encountered inconsistency, we conducted follow up to clarify discrepancies in information.
There are limitations to this research that are important to highlight. Imbalance of feedback from key informants is a key weakness of this study.
The gender disparity of the epidemic is most prominent among youth. Almost four times as many young women aged 15—24 are HIV-positive compared with corresponding males Human Rights Watch This is partly because a substantial proportion of adolescent girls have male sexual partners 5—10 years older than themselves WHOdisempowering women and girls in sexual and contraceptive decision-making and increasing their exposure to violence, unwanted pregnancy, abortion and HIV Luke and Kurz ; Jewkes et al.
South Africa has the highest reported levels of sexual and intimate partner violence in the world Mathews et al. The alleged rape trial of the now President Jacob Zuma stirred much controversy around South Africa's high levels of sexual violence and the underlying gender inequalities which fuel this crisis Siecus Qualitative and quantitative studies in South Africa suggest that violence and coercive practices pervade sexual relationships Ackerman et al.
They found that GBV is highly prevalent, poses barriers to adoption of safer sexual practices including condom use and is associated with an increased risk of HIV.
Similar findings are supported by other South African studies Ackermann et al. Studies in Western settings have identified the need for interventions for women experiencing violence in a range of health-care settings, including HIV and pregnancy services Gielen et al.
A particularly important recent trial showed that multi-pronged interventions dealing with both GBV and HIV-risk, as well as income generation, can successfully reduce both violence and HIV risk Pronyk et al. Despite the fact that these studies show the importance and success of addressing both HIV and GBV in joint interventions, the response of the South African Government has been mixed.
Legislation, such as the National Crime Prevention Strategy, established crimes of violence against women and children as a national priority.