France–Germany relations - Wikipedia
French–German (Franco-German) enmity was the idea of unavoidably hostile relations and mutual revanchism between Germans and French people that arose in the 16th century and became popular with the Franco–Prussian War of – It was an important factor in the unification of Germany (excluding Austria), and was finally overcome after World War II, when under the. The three principal partners in the Axis alliance were Germany, Italy, and Japan. Even before the Tripartite Pact, two of the three Axis powers had initiated War II on the Axis side on June 10, , as the defeat of France became apparent. On November 8, , in the thick of World War II, thousands of American relations with the Vichy government installed in France during WWII. The German troops occupied the northern half of the country, taking 2 million.
To answer these questions and more, dive into the story of Vichy France, the government that ruled from June till August Wikimedia Commons How did Vichy France come to be?
When France declared war on Germany on September 3,following the German invasion of Poland, the French military spent eight months watching and waiting for the first strike. Within weeks, the Germans had pushed their way deep into France, and the French government was forced to make an impossible decision: While Prime Minister Paul Reynaud argued they should keep fighting, the majority of government officials felt otherwise.
On June 22,France signed an armistice with Germany, and by July 9 parliament had voted to 80 to abandon the previous government, the Third Republic.
The German troops occupied the northern half of the country, taking 2 million French soldiers as prisoners of war, while the French government worked from its new base in Vichy, a spa city in the center of the country. Most nations recognized the Vichy government as legitimate; the U. Meanwhile, Charles de Gaulle objected to the legitimacy of the Vichy government from London, where he began working for the Free French movement. Was Vichy a fascist regime?
The break from the Third Republic came about in part due to the shock and humiliation of being so rapidly bested by the German military, and French leaders were looking everywhere for an explanation for their defeat. That blame fell squarely on the shoulders of Communists, socialists and Jews. Jewish people in particular had been experiencing animosity for decades, since the Dreyfus Affair of the s. Old Guard and New Order, But all the foreign Jews were put into camps, they cracked down on dissent, and it was in some ways increasingly a police state.
Did the regime collaborate with Nazis out of self-preservation, or did it have its own agenda?
French–German enmity - Wikipedia
The misconception that the Vichy Regime was the lesser of two evils endured only for the first few decades after the war. There was talk of war and France strengthened its ties with Britain and Russia. First World War[ edit ] Main articles: It is captioned with an 18th-century quote: In the chief pressure group was the Parti colonial, a coalition of 50 organizations with a combined total of members. International relations — The Allied victory saw France regain Alsace-Lorraine and briefly resume its old position as the leading land power on the European continent.
France was the leading proponent of harsh peace terms against Germany at the Paris Peace Conference. Since the war had been fought on French soil, it had destroyed much of French infrastructure and industry, and France had suffered the highest number of casualties proportionate to population.
Much French opinion wanted the Rhineland, the section of Germany adjoining France and the old focus of French ambition, to be detached from Germany as an independent country; in the end they settled for a promise that the Rhineland would be demilitarized, and heavy German reparation payments. On the remote Eastern end of the German Empire, the Memel territory was separated from the rest of East Prussia and occupied by France before being annexed by Lithuania.
To alleged German failure to pay reparations under the Treaty of Versailles inFrance responded with the occupation of the Rhineland and the industrial Ruhr area of Germany, the center of German coal and steel production, until Locarno treaties of [ edit ] Main article: Locarno Treaties In late German foreign minister Gustav Stresemann made his highest priority the restoration of German prestige and privileges as a leading European nation.
French withdrawal from the occupation of the Ruhr was scheduled for Januarybut Stresemann sensed that France was very nervous about its security and might cancel the withdrawal. He realized that France deeply desired a British guarantee of its postwar borders, but that London was reluctant. Stresemann came up with a plan whereby all sides would get what they wanted through a series of guarantees set out in a series of treaties.
British Foreign Minister Austen Chamberlain enthusiastically agreed. France realized that its occupation of the Ruhr Had caused more financial and diplomatic damage that was worth, went along with the plan. The conference of foreign ministers they convened in the Swiss resort of Locarno and agreed on a plan. The first treaty was the most critical one: The second and third treaties called for arbitration between Germany and Belgium, and Germany and France, regarding future disputes.
The fourth and fifth were similar arbitration treaties between Germany and Poland, and Germany and Czechoslovakia. Poland especially, and Czechoslovakia as well, felt threatened by the Locarno agreements and these treaties were attempts to reassure them. Thanks to the Dawes plan, Germany was now making regular reparations payments.French Surrender To Hitler (1940)
In Septemberwith a seat on its counsel as a permanent member. The result was the euphoric "Spirit of Locarno" across Europe—a sense that it was possible to achieve peace and a permanent system of guaranteeing that peace.
From under Adolf HitlerGermany began to pursue an aggressive policy in Europe. Meanwhile, France in the s was tired, politically divided, and above all dreaded another war, which the French feared would again be fought on their soil for the third time, and again destroy a large percentage of their young men.
France's stagnant population meant that it would find it difficult to withhold the sheer force of numbers of a German invasion; it was estimated Germany could put two men of fighting age in the field for every French soldier. Thus in the s the French, with their British allies, pursued a policy of appeasement of Germany, failing to respond to the remilitarization of the Rhinelandalthough this put the German army on a larger stretch of the French border.
But France remained exhausted and in no mood for a rerun of — When the Germans launched their blitzkrieg invasion of France inthe French Army crumbled within weeks, and with Britain retreating, an atmosphere of humiliation and defeat swept France.
On the other hand, the French Resistance conducted sabotage operations inside German-occupied France. To support the invasion of Normandy ofvarious groups increased their sabotage and guerrilla attacks; organizations such as the Maquis derailed trains, blew up ammunition depots, and ambushed Germans, for instance at Tulle.
The 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich came under constant attack and sabotage on their way across the country to Normandy, suspected the village of Oradour-sur-Glane of harboring terrorists, arms and explosives. In retaliation they decided to shoot all men, and burn alive all women and children in the church.
There was also a free French army fighting with the Allies, numbering almost five hundred thousand men by Juneone million by December and 1.