This study explored the relationship between processing speed and ground for the functions of creativity and giftedness. piece of information) were found to be common properties of creative individuals (Guilford, ). leading figure in studying creativity and its relationships with giftedness and and creativity span a common time line of more than 30 years of theory, research . There exists little consensus regarding definitions in the field of gifted and talented and giftedness, and a lack of knowledge of the relationships among various . Currently, the most common types of educational provisions for students who.
Empirical Investigations in the Classroom The Intrinsic Motivation Principle of Creativity Over 25 years of social psychological investigation into these motivational orientations have led to the Intrinsic Motivation Principle of Creativity: Intrinsic motivation is conducive to creativity, and extrinsic motivation is usually detrimental. In a basic research paradigm designed to test this proposition, study participants are randomly assigned to either constraint or no-constraint conditions.
Chapter 9: Children Who Are Gifted, Creative, and Talented
For instance, individuals are either led to expect a reward for their participation or no reward is mentioned, and then they are asked to produce some sort of observable product that can be assessed for level of creativity. Their motivational orientation i. Whether the targets of an investigation are preschoolers, fifth graders, or college students, the findings are consistent. Over the years, five environmental constraints have consistently proven to be sure-fire killers of intrinsic motivation and creativity Amabile, a, ; Hennessey, A Recipe for the Typical American Classroom Might this list of killers be just as well be labeled as a recipe for the typical American classroom?
As unbelievable as it may seem, we have somehow managed to structure educational environments in such a way that intrinsic motivation and creativity are bound to suffer, if not be completely destroyed.
The all-important question that must be addressed is how this situation can be turned around. How can teachers and administrators be helped to nurture the intrinsic motivation of their students? How can children be helped to develop an excitement about learning and the playfulness and the willingness to take risks that many researchers believe are crucial to creativity e.
Teacher Behavior in the Classroom The key element seems to be the preservation of a sense of self-determination. Dozens of investigations conducted in both heterogeneous and gifted classrooms e. Based on these studies and others like them, it appears that gifted and talented students who consistently approach their class work with high levels of skill may be especially impacted by the negative effects of extrinsic constraints that threaten perceptions of self-determination.
Gifted children are often well aware of their unusual talents. Drawing on past experience, they can be relatively sure that they will outperform their more typically developing peers; and, as a result, they tend not to be especially dependent on the informational feedback that sometimes accompanies reward or evaluation contingencies.
What many gifted students do need, however, is assistance in maintaining their intrinsic motivation. These motivational difficulties may stem from the fact that gifted students tend to be self-motivated, rather than teacher-motivated. They typically perform better with unstructured, flexible assignments and they prefer to select their own learning experiences, rather than being given a set task Winner, a, Rather than being bolstered by their unusual abilities and talents, many gifted children appear to be particularly vulnerable to classroom environmental influences.
Too often their enthusiasm and motivation are stifled by teachers invested in seeing that they conform to accepted practices, and they become easily bored. Gifted Children and the Creative Intersection Given their obvious talents and intellectual superiority early in life, surprisingly few gifted children grow up to be creative adults Winner, a. Researchers have tended to investigate only the largely innate, or at least largely immutable, differences between creative and uncreative or gifted and less academically talented students.
How might the gifted child be characterized according to the intersection model? Hunsaker and Callahan report that the majority of schools have adopted definitions of and criteria for giftedness that include creativity; and it might seem reasonable to expect that where creative behavior is concerned, gifted children can be expected to fare particularly well. Yet the overwhelming majority of students identified as gifted have earned that designation because of above average general ability and knowledge what Amabile terms domain-relevant skills Renzulli, Importantly, over 25 years of empirical research tell us that no amount of domain-relevant or even creativity-relevant skills can compensate for a lack of intrinsic motivation to perform an activity.
Task motivation makes the difference between what an individual can and will do Amabile, b. It is task motivation that determines whether domain skills and creativity skills will be adequately and efficiently tapped in the service of creative performance. While some research has revealed that intellectually gifted children can display strong levels of intrinsic motivation Gallagher, ; Winner,educators must be careful not to take this tendency for granted.
Intrinsic motivation is a most delicate and often fleeting entity. Even especially gifted students, who may be generally more highly intrinsically motivated toward what they do, can quickly fall prey to outside influences. Intrinsic motivation cannot be taught. It cannot be coerced, but it is easily squelched.
Intrinsic interest must come from within the individual and some classroom environments are much more conducive to this happening than are others. Rather, it is a capacity that needs nurturance and environmental support to blossom. The essential problem is this: If the motivation of many privileged students whose gifts have long been recognized and nurtured by families and schools can fall prey to the undermining effects of environmental influences, what about the motivational orientation of gifted students who might have the potential to make creative-productive contributions but who have not enjoyed the benefits of specially funded enrichment programs or high expectations from parents and teachers?
Educators must be sensitized to these issues. Gifted students belonging to more marginalized groups are particularly in need of help if they are to find their own creative intersection.
A close examination of investigations into the psychology of creativity reveals that very little empirical work has been specifically targeted at either non-Western cultures or persons of color or other racial-minority or linguistic-minority groups within the U. While Torrance and Renzulli have long argued for the consideration of LCD Linguistically and Culturally Diverse populations in the gifted and talented literature, it is only in recent years that a small but growing number of gifted and talented experts have systematically advocated for a consideration of all children: As Renzulli explains, programs that rely on traditional identification procedures may not be serving the wrong students, but they are certainly excluding substantial numbers of especially able but underachieving pupils—students who, if given the right classroom circumstances, could also demonstrate stellar achievements and signs of giftedness Renzulli, b.
Practical Applications Promoting Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity in Gifted Populations In their present form, the majority of American classrooms, from preschools through high schools and colleges, are fraught with killers of intrinsic interest and creativity. Administrators, teachers, parents, and students must work together to change both individual classroom environments and the overall climate of their educational institutions.
If gifted students are to be helped to find their creative intersection, significant and fundamental changes must be made to the way that educators think about teaching and learning.
Rather than singling out only a few students who might demonstrate exceptional ability in one or more narrowly-defined, traditional subject areas, this alternative approach recognizes student strengths and talents along a wide variety of dimensions.
While many of the earlier investigations in this genre tended to target White, middle-class, suburban school students, there is a growing body of evidence to indicate that all children, both gifted and more typically developing, can benefit from these changes. None of these suggested reforms necessitate large budgets or a major reallocation of funds.
Instead, what are needed are a deep commitment to change and a willingness on the part of the entire educational community to band together to make the school environment conducive to the development of intrinsic motivation and creativity.
Suggested Steps Teachers must work diligently to create an interpersonal atmosphere that allows students to feel in control of their learning process.
Teachers and administrators must step back and critically review the incentive systems that are currently in place. In situations where extrinsic incentives are being used, students must be helped to distance themselves from those constraints as much as possible.
Students must be helped to become more proficient at recognizing their own strengths and weaknesses. Clearly, these fundamental changes in attitude and behavior will not happen over night. But our experience as researchers tells us that teachers, parents, and students are hungry for the opportunity to view education in this new light.
And if given the license to effect these changes, we believe that schools can, in fact, make great strides towards fostering the intrinsic motivation and creativity of their gifted students as well as the general population. Motivating creativity in organizations: On doing what you love and loving what you do.
California Management Review, 40, The social psychology of creativity. Social psychology of creativity: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, Developing talent in young people. Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. A general facilitator of fluency. Developmental Psychology, 11, Change in the classroom. Characteristics of the rewarder and intrinsic motivation of the rewardee.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Teacher behaviors that foster creativity. Educational Psychology Review, 7, Talent identification and development in education. Center for Creative Learning.
Talent identification and development in education TIDE 2nd ed. Personality patterns of the gifted.
Understanding Our Gifted, 3, A psychological study of scientific creativity 2nd ed. University of Chicago Press. Teaching for creative development: Handbook of gifted education 2nd ed.
Scandinavian Journal of Educational Psychology, 47, The conditions of creativity. The educational psychology of creativity. Published instrument uses and abuses. Gifted Child Quarterly, 39, Creativity issues concerning linguistically and culturally diverse children. The creative skills of culturally and linguistically diverse gifted students. Creativity Research Journal, 6, Thus, the results did not support the threshold hypothesis.
Correlations between the two constructs were markedly lower when the type of creativity test was taken into account as a moderator: Like in an early study of Wallach and Kogannon-speeded tests were practically uncorrelated with intelligence.
Turning from creative potential to creative achievement, no evidence for an intelligence-threshold was found in recent investigations: Thus, individual differences in intelligence are highly relevant to real-life achievement not only the in general population e.
Methodological considerations for investigating the threshold hypothesis Recently, Karwowski and Gralewski tested the threshold hypothesis in light of different methodological considerations. The authors proposed three possible criteria in order to accept or reject the threshold hypothesis by means of the correlational approach: The most liberal criterion would be a significant positive correlation below the threshold and an insignificant correlation above it.
As a more conservative criterion, there should be a significant positive correlation below the threshold that is significantly higher than the correlation above the threshold. The most conservative test would be to claim a significant positive correlation below, an insignificant correlation above the threshold, and a significant difference between both of them.
The authors investigated the threshold hypothesis at different levels of intelligence Taken together, investigations of the relationship between intelligence and creative potential provide a scattered view: While some studies support a threshold effect, others report low to moderate positive correlations throughout the whole spectrum of intellectual ability.
One possible reason for the seemingly contradictory empirical findings could be the different conceptions and measures of creative potential employed by these studies. While some used ideational fluency as a single quantitative indicator of creative potential, other studies also included qualitative measures including ideational originality.
In fact, it seems that none of the sources that are usually quoted when the threshold hypothesis is concerned e. It hence appears that, even in absence of any empirical evidence for an IQ-threshold atthis very specific assumption of the threshold hypothesis has hardly ever been questioned or examined thoroughly. The present research This study aims at the identification of a possible threshold in the intelligence—creativity-relationship by means of continuous data analysis methods.
We applied segmented linear regression analysis which allows for an empirical test of whether and where there is a significant shift in a correlation pattern. Segmented regression analysis is common in the field of epidemiology, where dose—response-relationships are evaluated in terms of threshold models.
Here, X reflects different time points before and after an intervention and Y represents the potential outcome. We investigated three common indicators of creative potential: Ideational fluency, ideational originality as measured by a constant number of ideas Benedek et al. Additionally, we tested whether the threshold hypothesis also applies to creative achievement. It was predicted that the threshold hypothesis does not hold true for creative achievement Park et al.
If a significant breakpoint is detected and intelligence does not predict creative potential beyond it, it would be of particular interest to further examine which other constructs can explain variance in creative potential above the threshold. Therefore, we also tested whether correlations of creativity and personality variables are affected by potential intelligence-thresholds.
Participants In order to obtain a heterogeneous and not solely academic sample, we recruited participants via a local newspaper as well as the university's mailing lists.
After excluding one person due to excessive missing data, the sample consisted of respondents males with an average age of Participants were paid for taking part in the study.
The task is to find the correct sequel out of eight response alternatives. In the NF test, participants are to solve equations with missing arithmetic operators.
In the VEK test, participants have to remember a bus route. The route is graphically displayed and the name of each bus station is visible for a short period of time. In the WB test, participants have to decide which of four alternatives closest matches the meaning of a target word. The INSBAT is theoretically grounded on the Cattell—Horn—Carroll model of intelligence for an overview see McGrew, involving a g-factor as well as five secondary factors, including fluid gf and crystallized gc intelligence for details see Arendasy et al.
The estimate of g used in this study is based on the factor loadings of the INSBAT subtests, which means that g is most strongly predicted by gf. The reported intelligence scores reflect standardized IQ scores. Assessment of creative potential Creative potential was measured by means of three alternate uses AU tasks and three instances IN tasks.
In the alternate uses tasks, participants were required to find as many novel and uncommon uses as possible for a can, a knife, and a hairdryer. Each task lasted for two minutes. After completion of each task participants were asked to rank their responses with respect to creativity. We computed three common scores of creative potential. Ideational fluency was defined as the number of ideas given in the task. For the assessment of ideational originality we used two different scores which avoid the typical confound with ideational fluency.
First, we computed a Top 2 originality score, which reflects the creativity ratings of the two most original responses according to the participant's ranking cf.
Second, we also computed an average originality score, which reflects the mean creativity ratings of all ideas. The ICAA measures everyday creative activities as well as actual creative achievements with two different scales. Each of the 30 facets is assessed with ten items. The test was administered without time restriction. Procedure The experiment took place in a computer laboratory where groups of up to 10 participants performed all tests on a standard desktop computer.
Two experimenters explained the procedure and were present during the whole session.